Infrared imaging guidance is the development trend of infrared missile guidance system. Infrared imaging guidance missile’s target recognition simulation model was built by the in-depth analysis of the operating principles of infrared imaging guidance system. The detailed processing algorithm of infrared image preprocessing was simulated. And based on the gray distribution information and the edge shape information of the target area, the length-width ratio, complexity, compactness and the average value of gray were selected as the target image features. The similarity function model was presented as the criterion of target classification and recognition with the features. Infrared countermeasure simulation system was established, which mainly includes target aircraft model, airborne surface-type IR decoy model, infrared guidance missile model and operational effectiveness evaluation model. Finally, the effectiveness of the infrared imaging guidance missile’s target recognition simulation model was evaluated under the infrared jamming condition. And the operational effectiveness of the missile under the surface-type IR decoy interfering was analyzed by using the single performance and the overall effectiveness evaluation indexes.