Structured light 3D vision inspection is widely used in various 3D surface reconstruction techniques. However, there are still two problems to be solved. The first problem is that if the relative position between the camera and laser projector is changed, the system has to be calibrated again. The second problem is that a turntable or a linear positioning system is needed in order to obtain the complete 3D reconstruction data in conventional methods. To overcome these problems, we proposed a novel design using a dual semicircular planar target and a rotating laser projector to perform calibration and 3D reconstruction simultaneously. The system contains two semicircular planar targets hollowed out at center which are installed in up and down position. The middle part of the light stripe can pass through the blank part of semicircular planar target and then cast on the target object, while the rest of the light stripe will cast on the semicircular planar target. The laser projector is rotated 360 degrees along an axis perpendicular to the planar target plane to get the complete 3D surface reconstruction of the target object. Experiments are conducted to validate the flexibility and accuracy of the system.