A Monte Carlo model has been developed for epitaxial silicon active pixel sensor arrays. Ionization generation of <sup>55</sup>Fe
X-rays and high energy electrons are modeled directly using random numbers that follow an exponential distribution and
a Bichsel distribution, respectively. Both the simulation and measurement have identified a considerable bulk-silicon
substrate contribution to collected ionization electrons, which is important in accurate modeling of sensor response to
high energy electrons.
In a longstanding effort to overcome limits of film and the charge coupled device (CCD) systems in electron microscopy, we have developed a radiation-tolerant system that can withstand direct electron bombardment. A prototype Direct Detection Device (DDD) detector based on an Active Pixel Sensor (APS) has delivered unprecedented performance with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio (approximately 5/1 for a single incident electron in the range of 200-400 keV) and a very high spatial resolution. This intermediate size prototype features a 512×550 pixel format of 5&mgr;m pitch. The detector response to uniform beam illumination and to single electron hits is reported. Radiation tolerance with high-energy electron exposure is also impressive, especially with cooling to -15 °C. Stable performance has been demonstrated, even after a total dose of 3.3×10<sup>6</sup> electrons/pixel. The characteristics of this new detector have exciting implications for transmission electron microscopy, especially for cryo-EM as applied to biological macromolecules.
High resolution electron imaging is very important in nanotechnology and biotechnology fields. For example, Cryogenic Electron-Microscopy is a promising method to obtain 3-D structures of large protein complexes and viruses. We report on the design and measurements of a new CMOS direct-detection camera system for electron imaging. The
active pixel sensor array that we report on includes 512 by 550 pixels, each 5 by 5 μm in size, with an ~8 μm epitaxial layer to achieve an effective fill factor of 100%. Spatial resolution of 2.3 μm for a single incident e- has been measured. Electron microscope tests have been performed with 200 and 300 keV beams, and the first recorded Electron Microscope image is presented.
We present a new technique for fabricating gold nanowires using carbon nanotubes as the template. By applying an ac voltage to an electrically contacted single walled carbon nanotube, we generate highly non-uniform ac electric fields in the vicinity of the nanotubes. These ac electric fields serve to polarize 2 nm gold nanoparticles dispersed in solution. The induced dipole moment in the nanoparticles is attracted to the high-intensity field regions at the surface of the nanotube, thus causing a gold nanowire to grow on the surface of the nanotube. Interestingly, we find gold nanowires grow even on nanotubes that are not electrically contacted but in close proximity to the electrodes. Future applications of this work may include DNA sensors based on functionalized Au nanoparticles.