Proc. SPIE. 6388, Optical Transmission Systems and Equipment for Networking V
KEYWORDS: Switches, Switching, Green fluorescent protein, Video, Interfaces, Time division multiplexing, Local area networks, Dense wavelength division multiplexing, Network architectures, Standards development
In today's converged network environment, a rapid transition to unified packet-based core/edge network architecture is occurring. Core architecture becomes a two-layer network structure based on IP/MPLS (Internet Protocol/Multi-Protocol Label Switch) transport over DWDM bandwidth pipes, which is the most effective way of providing sharing network capacities, enabling efficient protection schemes, and delivering guaranteed end-to-end performance. The edge network is recognized as a place for an intense manipulation of both data streams and services, through traffic grooming, exchange, and service convergence. Three major groups of the end-to-end services are voice, data, and video. Today's reality is that current network structure is in transitional phase, where a number of legacy services, delivering voice and data, are still in place, while packet based services are being rapidly introduced. Optical ROADM handles the wavelength bandwidth pipes and provides flexible handling of wavelength paths (amplification, add/drop, and wavelength switching). In-service upgrade should be achievable at any particular location, which means that in line-amplifier site can be converted to ROADM site. In addition, the ROADM site should be upgradeable to full wavelength crossconnect functionality, which is required in a number of application scenarios. The ROADM functionality is not limited to wavelength related functions, but rather handles the key functions related to multiservice environment by accommodating Layer 1&2 features from a blade. Herewith, we will analyze the role of ROADM, its functions, and expansion over cross-layer applications, and present a structure that is the most appropriate to multiservice packetized environment.
Recently, service-providers network is gradually transforming/migrating into the Next Generation Network. This transformation/migration has been driven by the future services convergence and expected broadband traffic growth with all-IP network. Significant proportion of the large traffic volume of coming years will be carried by wireless access network technologies such as 3G cellular mobile, WiFi, and WiMAX. In this scenario, wireless network and optical network cannot be architected as simple overlay to obtain maximum efficiency. In this paper, we are proposing integration of the benefit of both technologies to realize future proof broadband Optical/Wireless converged network. We will also discuss on the optical edge node architectures.
In the current environment of medical information disclosure, the general-purpose image format such as JPEG/BMP which does not require special software for viewing, is suitable for carrying and managing medical image information individually. These formats have no way to know patient and study information. We have therefore developed two kinds of ID embedding methods: one is Bit-swapping method for embedding Alteration detection ID and the other is data-imposing method in Fourier domain using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for embedding Original image source ID. We then applied these two digital watermark methods to four modality images (Chest X-ray, Head CT, Abdomen CT, Bone scintigraphy). However, there were some cases where the digital watermarked ID could not be detected correctly due to image degradation caused by image processing. In this study, we improved the detection rate in digital watermarked image using several techniques, which are Error correction method, Majority correction method, and Scramble location method. We applied these techniques to digital watermarked images against image processing (Smoothing) and evaluated the effectiveness. As a result, Majority correction method is effective to improve the detection rate in digital watermarked image against image degradation.
Growing silicon crystals form free melt zones, the flow regime is usually dominated by time-dependent convection, resulting in temperature fluctuations in the melt and subsequently in irregular dopant distributions in the crystal. The contribution of buoyancy and thermocapillary convection can be separated and their specific characteristics determined by taking advantage of microgravity conditions. For quantification of convective temperature fluctuations, temperature measurements have been performed in liquid silicon zones. Both half zone and full zone and full zone arrangements have been investigated. In case of the latter one, temperature measurements have been performed during the growth process to analyze the relation between the temperature fluctuations and the dopant distribution. All experiments have been carried out in monoellipsoid mirror furnaces. For temperature measurements, sheathed thermocouples or graphite-coated blackbody sensors have been used. The maximum temperature fluctuations were up to 7K in the half-zone case and 0.7K in the full-zone one. In both cases the main frequencies are in the range of 0.05 to 0.5Hz but they are slightly shifted to higher values with increasing Marangoni number. For the half-zone configuration, four thermocouples and up to two black-body sensor were inserted into the melt. Between certain pairs of thermocouples and sensors, a well developed phase correlation or 180 degrees anti-phase correlation has been detected indicating a pulsating flow regime. In the case of the floating zone experiments, a very good agreement is found between the frequency characteristics of the temperature signal and the frequency distribution of dopant irregularities.
Surface oscillation due to oscillatory Marangoni flow in a liquid bridge of molten silicon was observed using phase- shift interferometry. The molten silicon surface was described by phase-distribution profiles with a sampling rate of 30 Hz. From the phase-distribution profiles, we analyzed the oscillation of the radial displacement, axial gradient, and azimuthal gradient of the molten silicon surface. The oscillation of the radial displacement, axial gradient showed an in-phase relationship. However, in-phase oscillation was not observed between the radial displacement and the azimuthal gradient. Marangoni frequencies was observed at 0.1 to 5 Hz in which the frequencies higher than 1Hz had not previously been observed by conventional methods. We also found eigenfrequencies of the liquid bridge at 8.8Hz and 11.5Hz.