The dynamic strain distribution of a fiber re-enforced plastic (FRP) plate under blast loading was investigated using a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) image analysis method. The testing FRP plates were mounted in parallel to each other on a steel frame. 50 g of composition C4 explosive was used as a blast loading source and set in the center of the FRP plates. The dynamic behavior of the FRP plate under blast loading were observed by two high-speed video cameras. The set of two high-speed video image sequences were used to analyze the FRP three-dimensional strain distribution by means of DIC method. A point strain profile extracted from the analyzed strain distribution data was compared with a directly observed strain profile using a strain gauge and it was shown that the strain profile under the blast loading by DIC method is quantitatively accurate.
The flame observed during the sudden release of high-pressure hydrogen into a tube filled with air, in the absence of an igniter, has not yet been investigated. In this study, the self-ignition and flame development behavior of high-pressure hydrogen flow in a tube is investigated to obtain fundamental knowledge for safety engineering. Two high-speed cameras are used simultaneously to obtain density gradient data from the shadowgraph image and flame dynamics from the direct image. Self-ignition occurs at the point near the sidewall in the region where cold hydrogen and preheated air are mixed by the precursor shock wave. After ignition, the flame propagates along the wall surface and spreads throughout the mixing region.
In this paper, precision high speed imaging of the pulse laser ablation of liquid surface has been described. This study is based on our previous findings that appreciable reduction of pulse laser ablation threshold of transparent material in case the pulse laser beam is incident from the water side on the interface of the transparent material and air or water. We have performed a series of experiments to observe the ablation process for laser incidence on the interface of water and air. Whole processes were observed by shadowgraphy optics by using a ns pulse laser and a high-resolution film. Within the tested experimental conditions, minimum laser fluence for laser ablation at water-air interface is shown to be around 12-16 J/cm<sup>2</sup>. We have confirmed that laser ablation phenomena will take place only when laser beam is incident on the water-air interface from inside the water medium. Many slender liquid ligaments extend like milk crown and seem to be atomized at the tip of them. Jet tip is moving at supersonic velocity but is decelerated very rapidly. By changing the laser energy with keeping laser fluence at the interface, temporal evolution changes appreciably at least in the early stage of the process. These detailed structures can be resolved only by pulse laser photography by using high-resolution film.
Burst of small fragments of glass has been evidenced in the present study, when ground glass surface is laser ablated. Production of macro particles by laser ablation is an inherent characteristic of ground glass, and no similar phenomena have been observed in case of metal or polymer ablation. In this case, no additional metal coating has been made to further enhance absorption of laser pulse. Pulse laser shadowgraph has been taken to study the details of the phenomena in air and in vacuum. At least in vacuum, particle burst is found almost normal to the surface. By using ns-duration Nd:YAG laser of 100 mJ/pulse, observed particle velocity ranges 0.5 km/s to 1.5 km/s in case of in air and the maximum velocity is extended up to 1.5-2 km/s in vacuum. SEM observation of the ground surface reveals that glass surface is covered with micro cracks with several microns deep, which might attribute to macro particle production. In this sense, not surface roughness but also surface structure will be important in the ablation phenomena of glass. It is plausible that absorption of laser beam at the glass surface causes spallation like phenomena as well as production of an amount of plasma, and the plasma production might be responsible for the acceleration of broken fragments of glass. We applied the phenomena to ignite PETN powder explosive, and succeeded in igniting PETN powder only by laser ablation of ground glass.