WINERED is a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution spectrograph. The spectral coverage is 0.90 to 1.35μm (z, Y, J-bands) and the spectral resolutions are R = 28,000 (WIDE-mode, covering an entire WINERED’s wavelength region with a single exposure) and R = 70,000 (HIRES-modes, covering either Y- or J-band with a single exposure). Owing to the high-throughput optics (> 0.5) and the very low noise of the system, WINERED has the potential to detect the faintest objects when attached to 10 m class telescopes as reported in the previous SPIE meeting. In the beginning of 2017, WINERED was relocated from the 1.3 m Araki telescope in Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Japan, to the ESO 3.58 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) in La Silla Observatory, Chile, and began its scientific observations. By March of 2008, 30 nights in total were allocated for observation with the WINERED at the NTT. To further improve observational efficiencies at the NTT, we upgraded and refined several units of WINERED. New slits were installed to realize a medium spectral resolution and the better correction of the distorted echellogram, the grating holder for the mosaicked high-blazed echelle gratings were modified, the ghost problems observed on the HIRES-Y mode were fixed, and the I/F mechanical parts were fabricated for easy and highlyreplicable attachment to the NTT. After verifying a few performances critical for the sensitivity of the new telescope, the background ambient radiation at the NTT, which determines the limiting magnitude because WINERED is a warm instrument with no cold stop, is very similar (~0.1 photons sec<sup>-1</sup> pixel<sup>-1</sup> at 290 K and ~0.04 photons sec<sup>-1</sup> pixel<sup>1 </sup>at 280 K) to those measured at Kyoto. The stability in wavelength, which could degrade the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) by artificial spiky-noises generated in the subtraction and correction of telluric emission/absorption lines, is measured to be less than 0.2 pixels during an observational run, although these can be further reduced by the crosscorrelation method which are applied for spectra taken at different timings during reduction. WINERED routinely provides spectra of the SNR > 500 for bright stars, and realized the detection of those of SNR = 30 for faint objects of J = 16.4 mag (for WIDE mode) and J=15.0 (for HIRES mode) with the exposure time of 8 hours using the narrowest slit at the NTT (even without AO).
WINERED is a PI-type 0.9 – 1.35 μm high-resolution spectrograph developed by the Laboratory of Infrared highresolution Spectrograph (LiH) of the Koyama Astronomical Observatory at Kyoto Sangyo University, Japan. The scope of WINERED is to realize a high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph with both wide coverage and high sensitivity. WINERED provides three observational modes called as the Wide, Hires-Y and Hires-J modes. The Wide mode simultaneously covers the z, Y and J-bands in a single exposure with R ≡ λ/Δλ = 28,000 and was commissioned for the 1.3 m Araki Telescope of Koyama Astronomical Observatory in 2013. We have been building alternative observational modes “Hires-Y” and “Hires-J”, providing R = 80,000 spectra in the Y- and J-bands, respectively. There are two choices for realizing a compact spectrograph with a high spectral resolution of R ≧ 50,000: an immersion grating (IG) or a highblazed echelle grating (HBG). Investigating the availabilities of both optical devices, we selected an HBG solution for λ < 1.5 μm because can be realized with currently available technology in earlier time. The optical parameters of WINERED’s HBGs are as follows: groove pitch = 90.38 μm, blaze angle = 79.32 °, and apex angle = 88°, which are determined to minimize vignetting in the optical system as well as aberrations with the spectral resolution of R = 80,000. Custom HBGs were made by CANON Inc. Because of the size the size limitation in fabrication process, we decided to use a mosaicked grating consisting of two HBGs. The alignment tolerances of the two HBGs are very tight (< 0.5 arcsec for the parallelism between grooves of the two gratings and 1.5 arcsec for the flatness between the two grating surfaces). To enable these fine alignments, we designed a grating holder with an adjustment mechanism with sub-μm positional resolution. We adapted cordierite CO-220 as the material for the grating holder, thereby reducing the misalignment generated by thermal expansions/compression with extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE < 2.0 ×10<sup>−8</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> at 23 °C). As a result of the measurement of the two HBGs installed in the grating holder, we confirmed the parallelism of < 0.1 arcsec. Finally, we evaluated the total optical performances of the Hires modes with the HBGs. The widths of the monochromatic slitimages obtained with a Th-Ar lamp were measured to be 1.7 – 2.3 pixels, which agreed well with the designed values (1.6 – 2.6 pixels). These results should guarantee the spectral resolution (R = 78,000) estimated from the measurement of the linear dispersion [pix / μm]. Because there was an avoidable degradation in reducing the two-dimensional spectrum using HBGs with a large γ angle, the final spectral resolution of the reduced one-dimensional spectrum results in R = 68,000.