Zinc doped titanium oxide (Ti<sub>1-x</sub>Zn<sub>x</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, x=0.05) abbreviated as Ti<sub>0.95</sub> Zn<sub>0.05</sub>O<sub>2</sub> (TZO) ceramic was synthesized by semiwet route using aqueous solution of zinc acetate dihydrate and solid titanium dioxide as starting materials. The single phase formation of the TZO ceramic sintered at 900 °C for 8 h was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The lattice parameters obtained by Retvield refinement were found to be a=b= 4.609 Å, c= 2.967Å and α=β= γ= 90 ° with space group P 42/m n m confirmed the rhombic structure of TZO ceramic. The average particle size of the TZO ceramic observed by TEM analysis was found to be 84 nm. The surface morphologies and roughness parameters of TZO ceramic were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. The value of dielectric constant (ε′) and tangent loss (tan δ) of the TZO ceramic were found to be 230 and 0.2, respectively at 100 Hz and 498 K.
Recent studies on multinary oxides for applications as laser hosts and high dielectric capacitors have shown that processing at high temperature provides glassy or crystalline materials based on thermal treatments and cooling rates. Since hydroxyapatites are now subject of great interests due to their bioactivity, interest in producing soft and hard materials with glassy and crystalline nature by processing parameters has become very important. Crystalline materials by using Bridgman, Czochralski and flux growth methods are costly and require huge investment. We have observed that even low temperature solidification in organic flux produced oriented fibers. This organic treated material has different characteristics than in situ oxide materials prepared by sintering and grain growth. Examples of phosphate and silicate-based systems will be presented to demonstrate soft and hard materials. Effect of TiO2 and other hardening elements will be also reported.