Among solid-state lighting technology, phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) are excellent candidates to replace incandescent lamps for their merit of high energy conservation, long lifetime, high luminous efficiency as well as polarized emissions. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are emerging color tunable emissive light converters. They have shown significant promise as light emitters, as solar cells, and in biological imaging. It has been demonstrated that the pc-WLED devices integrated with red emissive ZnCdSe QDs show improved color rendering index of device. However, cadmium-based QDs have limited future owing to the well-known toxicity. Recently, non-cadmium luminescence materials, i.e. CuInS2-based QDs, are investigated as desirable low toxic alternatives. Particularly, CuInS2-based QDs exhibit very broad emissions spectra with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 100-120 nm, large Stokes shifts of 200~300 meV and finely-tunable emissions. In order to adjust emission wavelengths and improved quantum yield (QY), CuInS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core/shell structure was introduced. Therefore, CIS/ZnS QDs have been extensively investigated and be used as color converter in solid-state lighting. Synthesis and application of CuInS2/ZnS core/shell QDs are conducted using a hot injection route. CIS/ZnS core/shell QDs with molar ratio of Cu:In equal to 1:4 are prepared. For WLED fabrication, the CIS/ZnS QD is dispersed in toluene first, and then it is blended with transparent acrylic-based UV resin. Subsequently, the commercial green-emitting Lu3Al5O12: Ce3+ (LuAG) phosphors are mixed with QDs-resin mixture. After that, the QDs-phosphors-resin mixtures are put in the oven at 140 °C for 1 h to evaporate the toluene. Subsequently, the homogeneous QDs-phosphors-resin mixture is dropped on the top of a blue LED chip (InGaN). Then, the device is cured by 400 W UV light to form WLED. The emission wavelength of CIS/ZnS QD exhibits yellow region of 552 nm with QY of 76 %, and with relatively broad bandwidth of 86 nm. The structure of CIS/ZnS belongs to chalcopyrite phase and its average particle size is 3.2 nm. The luminous efficacy, color rendering index (CRI), correlated color temperature (CCT), and CIE chromaticity coordinate of WLED is 47 lm/W, 89, 5661 K, and (0.33, 0.29), respectively.
In this study, we have demonstrated a facile chemical route to prepare CdSe QDs with white light emission, and the performance of white CdSe-based white light emitting diode (WLED) is also exploded. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to form Cd-OA complex first and hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-octadecene (ODE) is used as surfactants. Meanwhile, by varying the reaction time from 1 s to 60 min, CdSe QDs with white light can be obtained. The result shows that the luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light from 400 to 700 nm, when the reaction time less than 10 min. The wide emission wavelength combine two particle sizes of CdSe, magic and normal, and the magic-CdSe has band-edge and surface-state emission, while normal size only possess band-edge emission. The TEM characterization shows that the two different sizes with diameter of 1.5 nm and 2.7 nm for magic and normal size CdSe QDs can be obtained when the reaction time is 4 min. We can find that the magic size of CdSe is produced when the reaction time is less than 3 min. In the time ranges from 3 to 10 min, two sizes of CdSe QDs are formed, and with QY from 20 to 60 %. Prolong the reaction time to 60 min, only normal size of CdSe QD can be observed due to the Ostwald repining, and its QYs is 8 %. Based on the results we can conclude that the two emission peaks are generated from the coexistence of magic size and normal size CdSe to form the white light QDs, and the QY and emission wavelength of CdSe QDs can be increased with prolonging reaction time. The sample reacts for 2 (QY 30 %), 4 (QY 32 %) and 60 min (QY 8 %) are choosing to mixes with transparent acrylic-based UV curable resin for WLED fabrication. The Commission International d’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity, color rendering index (CRI), and luminous efficacy for magic, mix, and normal size CdSe are (0.49, 0.44), 81, 1.5 lm/W, (0.35, 0.30), 86, 1.9 lm/W, and (0.39, 0.25), 40, 0.3 lm/W, respectively.
The colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have the potentials to be used in white light-emitting diode (WLED) as a down-converting component to replace incandescent lamps, because the traditional WLED composed of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce) phosphor lack of red color emissions and shows low color quality. Among various QDs, CdSe has been extensively studied because it possesses attractive characteristics such as high quantum yields (QYs), narrow emission spectral bandwidth, as well as size-tunable optical characteristics. However, in order to enhance the color rendering index (CRI) of WLED, blending materials with different emission wavelengths has been used frequently. Unfortunately, these procedures are complex and time-consuming, and the emission energy of smaller QDs can be reabsorbed by larger QDs, resulting in decreasing the excitation intensity in yellowish-green region. Therefore, in this study, in order to decrease the reabsorption effect and to simplify the procedures, we have demonstrated a facile thermal pyrolyzed route to prepare bicolor CdSe QDs with dual-wavelengths. The emission wavelengths, particle sizes, and QYs of QDs can be tuned from 537/595 to 537/602 nm, 2.59/3.92 to 2.59/4.01 nm, and 27 to 40 %, for GR1 to 3 samples, respectively when the amount of Se precursor is decreased from 1.5 to 0.75 mmol. Meanwhile, the area ratio of green to red (Ag/Ar) in fluorescence spectra is gradually increased, due to the increase in growth rate, and decrease in nuclei formation in red emission. The GR1, GR2, and GR3 QDs are then encapsulated by convert types to form the LED, in which the QDs are deposited on the blue-emitting InGaN LED chip (λem = 450 nm). After encapsulation, the devices properties of Commission International d’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity and Ag/Ar area ratio are (0.40, 0.24), 0.28/1, (0.40, 0.31), 0.52/1, and (0.40, 0.38), 1.02/1, respectively for GR1, GR2, and GR3. The results show that the green emission intensity are strongly reabsorbed by red emission, as the Ag/Ar area ratios are gradually increased and the CIEs are dramatically shift to white light region, suggesting that the Se amount not only can tune the red emission intensity but also can decrease the reabsorption effect. Based on the above results, the GR3 is suitable to be applied for WLED against the reabsorption effect. Besides, when the GR3 is blended with UV resin of 30 wt. % to prepare the WLED, the CIE located at (0.35, 0.34) is applied as backlight source, providing 126 % color gamut in sRGB standard. As a result, by simply adjusting the concentration of Se precursor, QDs with dual-wavelengths can be prepared and the reabsorption effect can be avoided to show promising lighting properties for the application in WLED.
Recently, the investigation of quantum dots (QDs) as a color converter for white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) application has attracted a great deal of attention. Because the narrow emission wavelength of QDs can be controlled by their particle sizes and compositions, which is facilitated to improve the color gamut of display as well as color rendering index (CRI) and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of WLEDs. In a typical commercially available LCD display, the color gamut is approximately to 75 % which is defined by the National Television System Committee (NTSC). In order to enhance NTSC, the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of color converter should be less than 30 nm. Therefore, the QDs are the best choice for display application due to the FWHM of QDs is meet the demand of display application. In this study, the hot injection method with one-pot process is used to synthesis of colloidal ternary ZnCdSe green (G-) and red-emission (R-) QDs with a narrow emission wavelength around 537 and 610 nm. By controlling the complex reagents-stearic acid (SA) and lauric acid (LA), high performance of G- and R-QDs can be prepared. The quantum yields (QYs), particle sizes and FWHM for G- and R-QDs are 70, 30 %, 3.2 ± 0.5, 4.1 ± 0.5 nm and 25, 26 nm, respectively. In order to explore the performance of QDs-based WLEDs, mixing ratios effect between G-QD and R-QD are studied and the WLED is packed as conformal-type. Different ratios of R-QD and G-QD (1:10, 1:20 and 1:30) are mixed and fill up the 3020 SMD blue-InGaN LED, and named as LED-10, LED-20 and LED-30. After that, UV curable gel is deposited on the top of QD layer to form WLED and named as LED-10*, LED-20* and LED-30*. The results show that the Commission International d’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates, color rendering index (CRI), luminous efficacy of LED-10*, LED-20* and LED-30* are (0.27, 0.21), 53, 1.9 lm/W, (0.29, 0.30), 72, 3.3 lm/W and (0.25, 0.34), 45, 6.8 lm/W, respectively. We can find that the positions of CIE can be controlled simply by adjusting the ratios of G- and R-QDs. Besides, the LED-10 and LED-20* device shows the high CRI, implying that it has great potential for application on backlight of display technology and solid-state lighting.
Perovskite quantum dots (P-QDs) is a new kind of optoelectronic materials in recent years. Compared with organic perovskite QDs (MAPbX3), inorganic perovskite QDs (CsPbX3) have a better stability. Inorganic P-QDs can be prepared at low temperature. Those novel QDs can be applied in solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), display, and biolables. Typical synthesis process to prepare CsPbX3 QDs is used oleic acid (OA) and cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) to form Cs-oleate complex first. Moreover, the oleylamine (OLA) and octadecene (ODE) are used as capping agents. Cs-oleate complex then reacts with PbX2 to form CsPbX3 QDs (reacts for 5 s). As we know that the CsPbBr3 QDs emits green light, and its emission wavelength can be tuned by adding Cland Iions to replace Brion. However, the reaction rate of CsPbX3 QDs is fast, and it is not easy to control the emission wavelength by particle size. In this study, we use the saturated alkyl amines with difference of carbon chain length such as dodecylamine (DDA), hexadecylamine (HDA), and octadecylamine (ODA) to prepare CsPbBr3 QDs. The result shows that the emission spectra for all samples range from 489 (ODA) to 514 nm (DDA), the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) is between 23 to 28 nm, the surface morphologies of all samples are nearly spherical, and the quantum yields (QYs) are higher up to 130 % (compared with R6G and the excitation wavelength is 450 nm). Based on emission spectra we can find that the emission peaks are fixed even under different excitation wavelength, imply that the particle size distribution of QDs is uniform. Moreover, the emission wavelength blue shifts with increasing carbon chain length of amines. The stability of alkyl amine-capped CsPbBr3 QDs is good, especially for DDA-capped sample. We also find that a small emission peak around 462 nm can be only observed for DDA-capped sample. Furthermore, this small peak also can be observed even prolong the reaction time to 10 min. The emission wavelengths of CsPbBr3 QDs can be controlled by carbon chain length of alkyl amines. The small FWHM and high QYs of CsPbBr3 QDs meaning that it is benefit to enhance the color gamut of display.
Recently, the investigation of quantum dots (QDs) as color converters for white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) has
attracted a significant amount of attention, because the emission wavelength and broad excitation band of QDs can be
controlled by their particle sizes and compositions. However, owing to the thermal effect, the long-term stability of QDWLEDs
is one of the important tasks for their application. Moreover, the commercial WLEDs have low color rendering
index (CRI) and the reabsorption effect. Therefore, in order to increase the device stability and CRI, in this study, we have
used easy one-pot process to synthesize the colloidal ternary Zn0.8Cd0.2S (ZnCdS) QDs with wide emission, a quantum
yield (QY) of 42 % and a particle size of 3.2 ± 0.5 nm. Three methods have been applied to encapsulate the QDs and their
average CRIs are 78. We have demonstrated that the QDs-based WLEDs can achieve color converter robust against photooxidation,
thermal quenching, and scattering, and can be applied to fabricate reliable P-QD1 device with an air gap between
the emission layers. This encapsulation setup can protect the color converter and maintain the best stability over 750 hours
operation time, and the Commission International d’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates and luminous efficacy can
be tuned from (0.36, 0.40) to (0.32, 0.33) and 4.5 to 3.2, respectively.
A white light emission CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can be prepared by chemical route under 180°C. An organic oleic acid
(OA) is used to react with CdO to form Cd-OA complex. Hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-Octadecene (ODE) were used
as co-surfactants. By controlling the reaction time, a white light emission CdSe QDs can be obtained after reacts for 3 to
10 min. The luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light ranges from 400 to 650
nm. Based on TEM measurement result, spherical morphologies with particle size 2.39±0.27 nm can be obtained. The
quantum yields (QYs) of white CdSe QD are between 20 and 60 %, which depends on reaction time. A white CdSe QDs
were mixed with UV cured gel (OPAS-226) with weight ratios 50.0 wt. %, and putted the mixture into reflective cup
(3020, 13 mil) as convert type. The white LEDs have controllable CIE coordinates and correlated color temperature
(CCT). The luminous efficacy of the device is less than 3 lm/W, but the color rendering index (CRI) for all devices are
higher than 80. Since the luminous efficacy of hybrid devices has a direct dependence on the external QY of the
UV-LED as well, the luminous efficacy can be improved by well dispersion of CdSe QDs in UV gel matrix and using
optimized LED chips. Therefore, in this study, we provide a new and simple method to prepare high QY of white CdSe
QDs and its have a potential to applicate in solid-state lighting.
An analysis of an optical-digital system based on the architecture of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer for recording holographic filters is presented. The holographic recording system makes use of one microscope objective in each interferometer arm. Moreover, the Gabor Wavelet Transform is implemented for the holographic reconstruction stage. The samples studied of this research are selected in order to test the retrieval algorithm and to characterize the resolution of the holographic recording system. In this last step, some sections of an USAF1951 resolution chart are used. These samples allow us to study the features of lighting in the recorded system. Additionally, some organic samples are used to proven the capabilities of the method because biological samples have much complex morphological composition than others. With this in mind, we can verify the frequencies recovered with each of the settings set in the retrieval method. Experimental results are presented.
In this study, binary CdSe and ternary Zn0.5Cd0.5Se quantum dots (QDs) with monochromatic light are blended with conventional phosphors and those monochromatic lights of Zn0.5Cd0.5Se QDs are also mixed together and then packaged as remote type. Besides, white light CdSe QD are used alone to fabricate white light-emitting diode (LED). We have demonstrated that the color rendering index (CRI) and luminous efficacy can be improved by blending conventional phosphors with QDs. The Zn0.5Cd0.5Se QDs incorporated with yellow phosphors have better device performance and optical properties. Zn0.5Cd0.5Se QDs with different emission wavelength are blended with each other. The result reveals that mixing ratios and photoluminescence efficiency (PLE) between different colors of QDs are important factors. When white CdSe QD is excited by ultraviolet LED (UV-LED) without mixing multi-colors of phosphor, high CRI can be obtained for CdSe-based white LED.