The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is an afterglow of the Big Bang. It contains the crucial keys to understand the beginning of the universe. In particular, the odd-parity patterns of CMB polarization, B-modes, at more than degree-scale, are the best probe to detect primordial gravitational waves at the cosmic inflation. The GroundBIRD experiment aims to detect this large angular scale patterns from the ground. The experiment employs novel techniques; a high-speed rotational scanning system (20 revolution-per-minutes) with cold optics below 4K, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) as the focal plane detectors. The fast scanning modulation is a crucial characteristic in our observation strategy to mitigate effects of the atmospheric fluctuation. The telescope rotates and scans the sky along the azimuth at the elevation angle of 60 degrees at Teide observatory in the Canary Islands. It allows us to measure CMB polarization patterns at a wide multipole range, 6 < \ell < 300, i.e.
aiming to catch the reionization bump. We have developed a telescope mount with 3-axis rotation mechanism (azimuth, elevation, and boresight). We are evaluating the vibration at the focal plane position with rotating the telescope mount. The focal plane consists of seven hexagonal corrugated horn coupled MKIDs array: six hexagon units are for 145 GHz band (55 pixels/unit), and one unit is for 220 GHz band (112 pixels). Each pixel consists of a corrugated horn, a planner OMT, millimeter wave circuits for transmission of dual-polarization signals with the suppression of crosstalk modes, and two MKIDs for each polarization. Magnetic shields are also mounted so as to suppress the external magnetic fields. Trapped magnetic fields inside of the superconducting materials decrease the performance of the MKID. The geomagnetism is the static and large magnetic fields. The telescope motion makes modulation of the geomagnetism as well as the modulation of CMB signals. Therefore, we need careful evaluation associating with the telescope rotation. By using a small evaluation system with modulated magnetic fields, we understand impacts the magnetic shield as well as responses of the MKID for the modulated magnetic field. We
design the shield based on them. In this presentation, we will report an evaluation of detector responses on the high-speed rotating system along the azimuth. We will also show demonstrations of our own readout electronics which is well matching with the rapid scan modulation strategy.
LiteBIRD is a next generation satellite aiming for the detection of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) B-mode polarization imprinted by the primordial gravitational waves generated in the era of the inflationary universe. The science goal of LiteBIRD is to measure the tensor-to-scaler ratio r with a precision of δr < 10<sup>-3</sup>♦, oﬀering us a crucial test of the major large-single-field slow-roll inflation models. LiteBIRD is planned to conduct an all sky survey at the sun-earth second Lagrange point (L2) with an angular resolution of about 0.5 degrees to cover the multipole moment range of 2 ≤ ℓ ≤ 200. We use focal plane detector arrays consisting of 2276 superconducting detectors to measure the frequency range from 40 to 400 GHz with the sensitivity of
3.2 μK·arcmin. including the ongoing studies.
Polarized patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation contains rich knowledge for early stage of the universe. In particular their odd-parity patterns at large angular scale (> 1°), primordial B-modes, are smoking-gun evidence for the cosmic inflation. The GroundBIRD experiment aims to detect these B-modes with a ground-based apparatus that includes several novel devices: a high-speed rotational scan system, cold optics, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). We plan to start observations in the Canary Islands in 2017. In this paper, we present the status of the development of our instruments. We established an environment that allows operation of our MKIDs in an optical configuration, in which the MKIDs observe radiations from the outside of the telescope aperture. We have also constructed MKID prototypes, and we are testing them in the optical configuration.
We present the mission design of LiteBIRD, a next generation satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and inflation from cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) detection. The science goal of LiteBIRD is to measure the CMB polarization with the sensitivity of δr = 0:001, and this allows testing the major single-field slow-roll inflation models experimentally. The LiteBIRD instrumental design is purely driven to achieve this goal. At the earlier stage of the mission design, several key instrumental specifications, e.g. observing band, optical system, scan strategy, and orbit, need to be defined in order to process the rest of the detailed design. We have gone through the feasibility studies for these items in order to understand the tradeoffs between the requirements from the science goal and the compatibilities with a satellite bus system. We describe the overview of LiteBIRD and discuss the tradeoffs among the choices of scientific instrumental specifications and strategies. The first round of feasibility studies will be completed by the end of year 2014 to be ready for the mission definition review and the target launch date is in early 2020s.