The data bank for the backscattering matrixes of cirrus clouds that was calculated earlier by the authors and was available in the internet for free access has been replaced in the case of randomly oriented crystals by simple analytic equations. Four microphysical ratios conventionally measured by lidars have been calculated for different shapes and the effective size of the crystals. These values could be used for retrieving shapes of the crystals in cirrus clouds.
The classification of precipitating cloud systems over Thailand was attempted by using radar reflectivity and
Multifunctional Transport Satellites (MTSAT) infrared brightness temperature (TBB) data. The proposed method can
classify the convective rain (CR) area, stratiform rain (SR) area and non-precipitation area such as cumulus and cirrus
cloud by applying an integrating analysis of rain gauge, ground-based radar and geostationary satellite data. Since the
present study focuses on precipitation, the classified results of precipitation area are used to estimate quantitative
precipitation amount. To merge different rainfall products, the bias between the products should be removed. The bias
correction method is used to estimate spatially varying multiplicative biases in hourly radar and satellite rainfall using a
gauge and radar rainfall product, respectively. An extreme rain event was selected to obtain the multiplicative bias
correction and to merge data set. Correlation coefficient (CC), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias are used to
evaluate the performance of bias correction method. The combined radar-MTSAT method is a simple and useful method.
This method has been successfully applied to merge radar and gauge rainfall for hydrological purpose.
A yellow dust event with moderate strength was observed on 9 April 2012 at Sendai in North part of Japan. Backward
trajectory calculations with NOAA HYSPLIT showed the complex flow of aerosols into the North Japan. The sharp edge
of this dust cloud was recognized by the data taken at several observatories, and the dust cloud conducted by low
pressure system had heterogeneous structure, therefore very complicated interaction among aerosols may occur. Mie
scattering lidar data was used to reproduce the radiative effect caused by this yellow dust event at Sendai with radiative
transfer model. The results estimated every 15 minutes of radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the bottom
of the atmosphere. The results show the slight warming effects < 6.5 W/m2 during night time both at the top and the
bottom of the atmosphere, and during day time the large cooling effects < 150 W/m2 at the bottom and < 60W/m2 at the top of the atmosphere.