Resistive Plate Chambers are planar, gaseous detectors made with electrodes and resistive plates, which is divided into single-gap (RPC) and multi-gap (MRPC). Such detectors have a simple structure, good time resolution, high efficiency, small dead zone, flexible signal readout mode and a relatively low cost, etc. Therefore, it has extensive and important applications in high energy physics, nuclear physics and other fields. The resistive glass plate has good stability and is less affected by the environments, which ensures the uniformity of the electric field inside the detector and makes the detector have lower dark current and noise. In this paper, the influence mechanism of resistive glass on detector performance was introduced firstly. Then the application and research status at home and abroad were summarized. On this basis, the existing problems in the research of resistive glass were expounded. Finally, according to the application requirements of RPC under the condition of high particle fluxes, the future development trend was analyzed and proposed. The author believes that it is the future development trend and direction in the field of resistive glass to carry out research on high-performance resistive glass materials and develop pure electronic conduction glass materials with volume resistivity of 109Ω•cm ~1010Ω•cm through composition design and control. At the same time, in order to meet the manufacturing requirements of large area array detectors, the strength, chemical stability and the possibility of batch manufacturing of the glass should also be fully considered in the development process of resistive glass.
The resistive plate chamber (RPC) is a gaseous parallel-plate detector, the glass resistive plate is the key element of RPC. In order to meet the requirement of high flux particle detection, it is urgent to develop low resistivity electroconductive glass. For this purpose, we designed the glass of SiO<sub>2</sub>-B<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-M<sub>x</sub>O<sub>y</sub>system, the M<sub>x</sub>O<sub>y</sub> was chosen as Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and MnO<sub>2</sub>. In this paper, the formation abilities and conductive properties of glass were studied by adjusting the contents of the glass forming body and M<sub>x</sub>O<sub>y</sub>. The results showed that P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>and P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-B<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> built a quasi-[SiO<sub>4</sub>] tetrahedron structure as the glass forming body, the SiO<sub>2</sub>strengthened the network, which greatly improved the stability of the glass. Meanwhile, the addition of B<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> could enhance the doping ability of M<sub>x</sub>O<sub>y</sub> in the whole glass system, which was benefit to reduce the resistivity of glass. Three transition metal oxides were added to the same base glass, and their resistivity was in order: <sub>ρFe</sub>＜<sub>ρV</sub>＜<sub>ρMn</sub>. The relationships between the oxidation-reduction atmosphere of glass melting and the resistivity of glass were investigated. The conductivity types was confirmed to be electronic conductive by testing the Seebeck coefficient and Hall effect of glass. The resistivity of the developed SiO<sub>2</sub>- B<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> electronic conductive glass system was reached to10<sup>10</sup>Ω·cmlevel.
Image intensifier is the key components of low-light level night vision device. In order to extend its dynamic range of the night vision sight, a high voltage pulse gated power supply (HVPGPS) for image intensifier cathode is researched in this paper. The HVPGPS with pulse width adjustable is optimally designed for the image intensifier cathode power supply. Its pulse amplitude is 250 V, with 1 kHz frequency. Two different circuits are combined to get the adjustable pulse width from narrow to wide. The pulse width parameters are: the narrow pulse circuit is from 20 ns to 300 ns, and its wide pulse circuit is 300 ns – millisecond (ms). This HVPGPS can achieve the advantages of small size circuit, low power consumption, and which meets the requirements of image intensifier cathode power supply.
To adapt the specific demands of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory, we design and manufacture a new type of micro-channel plate PMT (MCP-PMT) with the following performance indicators: the PMTs’ glass shell adopts the formula of GG-17 which have no K<sub>2</sub>O, and very low background (the contents of <sup>232</sup>Th, <sup>238</sup>U and <sup>40</sup>K in the raw materials are less than 40 ppb, 20 ppb and10 ppb, respectively). Its main body is sphere with 500 mm external diameter, 4 mm wall thickness and the tails that using a gradual transition of kinds of low radiation background glasses, then sealing with the Kovar. The photocathode material with lowest dark noise is bi-alkali photocathode which spectral region matches the liquid scintillator emission spectral (400~440 nm). The front and back hemisphere is transmission and reflective photocathode separately. Two sets of double-stack micro-channel plates replacing the dynode chain are used to detect the photoelectrons from both sites. The focusing system makes the photoelectrons hit into the inside of MCPs to the uttermost. The anode and lead make sure charge signal is no distortion. No matter made by transfer equipment or not, the peak value of quantum efficiency of the PMT should reach 30%, and the peak-to-valley ratio of single photoelectron spectrum has surpassed 2.5:1. In a word, the MCP-PMT’s reliability and other characteristics meet the need of Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory.
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium (a-SiGe:H) single junction pin sequence solar cells with different bandgap structure of intrinsic layer were prepared by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD). Three kinds type of intrinsic layer using in this study were non-grading structure, V type grading and reverse V type grading. The effects of different intrinsic layer structure on solar cell performance were systematically studied. The results showed that the optimized structure of intrinsic layer was the reverse V type grading structure. And the performance of a-SiGe:H solar cell with reverse V type grading after annealing also were studied. The results revealed that the performance was improved after first annealing, but was deteriorate for further annealing. And, we have studied the dark I-V curves in order to contribute to a better understanding of the basis of solar cells.