As Silicon Photonics is developing further towards integration on a single platform, the need for precise fabrication is
paramount and no matter how developed a technology is, there is always potential for error at the wafer and chip level. In
combination with Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology, we present direct write methods to fabricate and tailor Silicon
Photonic devices to offer the potential of prototyping, testing and correction in a post-processing environment. However,
inherent in most FIB processing is the introduction of large optical loss due to damage and implantation of Gallium,
because Gallium is typically the gas species used in FIBs. Therefore, methods of processing to minimise potential loss
and changes to the original device design will be presented alongside results and a discussion offering a comparison with
other potential methods.
Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) has emerged as promising material choice for various integrated optoelectronic devices. Two
issues make SOI attractive for complex optical systems: the cost reduction due to compatibility with CMOS technology
and high refractive index contrast between core and cladding, which is an important property for good confinement of
light and efficient guiding and coupling in sub-micron waveguides. However, for those devices that are intended to be
part of broadband optical networks, for example multiplexers and de-multiplexers, it is desirable to demonstrate a high
selectivity and a tunable response. Thus, it is necessary to provide wavelength selective elements with the ability to filter
input data streams producing a large Free Spectral Range (FSR), a small Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), and a
high quality factor (Q), all conditions set by communication standards. Owing to the generic and adaptable operation,
ring-resonator-types of filters in SOI are often considered as candidates to meet these demands. Herein two different
designs are investigated from both experimental and modelling standpoints in order to tailor the filter transfer function.
These are mutually coupled (Vernier) resonators and cascaded resonators based on small SOI photonic wires. Fabricated
filters designed to provide a large FSR and a polarisation independent (PI) response are analysed and improvements
proposed. Issues associated with temperature control of the transfer function have also been addressed.
The single-mode optical rib waveguide is a fundamental building block for many, more complex optical circuits. Recent modelling has been provided in the literature that has investigated polarisation and modal properties of small, deeplyetched rib waveguides in SOI. In this paper we present work that has utilised a total of 160 directional couplers fabricated from rib waveguides of various waveguides dimensions, to investigate the validity of the published modelling. In particular 5 waveguide designs have been used to fabricate directional couplers of differing lengths, to map out the variation in coupling of power within the directional couplers. For a singlemode device, a characteristic sinusoidal variation is expected, but the sinusoid will be corrupted in the presence of higher order modes, each of which will have a different coupling length as compared to the fundamental mode. We have observed experimental results that are consistent with the modelling for each of the 5 waveguide designs, and hence we present experimental evidence of higher-order mode behaviour that is consistent with modelling.
Because of their compact size, ring resonators can be a cost effective solution for many Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) components, as well as many low cost applications such as part of optical sensor circuits, or low cost optical signal processing. Modulators, filters, add-drop multiplexers, and switches are all components that can be realised with a ring resonator. Their potentially large Free Spectral Range (FSR), finesse, and quality factor, together with the potential for low cost fabrication, make them a viable alternative to many current DWDM devices. However, for such devices to be commercially viable, they need to be insensitive to the polarisation state of the input signal. The results obtained herein show that a single input/output optical racetrack resonator has been fabricated so that the minima in the resonance spectra align to better than 1pm. The rings also exhibit relatively low loss with measured Q-factors of approximately 90,000 and finesse values of 12.
In an effort to determine low-cost alternatives for components currently used in DWDM, optical ring resonators are currently being investigated. The well-known microfabrication techniques of silicon, coupled with the low propagation loss of single crystal silicon, make SOI an attractive material. Laterally coupled racetrack resonators utilising rib waveguides have been fabricated and preliminary results are discussed. An extinction ratio of 15.9 dB and a finesse of 11 have been measured.