Cervical cancer is considered as the second most commonly occurring malignancy among women, next to breast cancer. It is well known that most of the cancer patients diagnosed with advanced stages and there is a pressing need for improved methods to detect cancer at its initial stages. Many techniques have been adopted for the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Among these, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy is a complementary technique of fluorescence spectroscopy which helps us to elucidate the spectral characteristics which highly depend on pH, viscosity and local environment. Since urine has many metabolites and the measurement of native fluorescence of urine, in principle, able to provide an indication of a number of health conditions, attempts were made to study fluorescence anisotropic characterization of the human urine of cervical cancer patients and normal subjects. Significant differences were observed between the anisotropic and polarization values of cancer subjects and normal subjects.
The metabolic coenzymes NADH and FAD are autofluorescent and can be monitored non-destructively and
without exogenous labels, using optical techniques. These endogenous fluorophores which are present in the cells and
tissues gives rise to different fluorescence emission/excitation spectra between the normal and different diseased
conditions. In the resent years, finding the optical redox ratio i.e., the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of FAD and
NADH, gives the relative change in the oxidation-reduction state of the cells. Unlike other organs oral cavity has lined
with variety of mucosal types. We investigated in vivo Optical redox ratio for four different anatomical locations viz.,
cheek mucosa, vermilion border of the lip, Hard palate, dorsal side of the tongue of healthy oral cavity. We measured
this ratio for 20 healthy subjects and the redox ratio was significantly different between the different anatomical
locations. The statistical significance was also investigated.
In this study the diagnostic potential of synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (SLS) technique for the
characterization of normal and different pathological condition of cervix viz., moderately differentiated squamous cell
carcinoma (MDSCC), poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (PDSCC) and well differentiated squamous cell
carcinoma (WDSSC). Synchronous fluorescence spectra were measured for 70 abnormal cases and 30 normal subjects.
Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and MDSCC, PDSCC and
WDSCC cervical blood formed elements were obtained. The synchronous luminescence spectra of formed elements of
normal and abnormal cervical cancer patients were subjected to statistical analysis. Synchronous luminescence
spectroscopy provides 90% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity.
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a high risk precancerous condition characterized by changes in the connective
tissue fibers of the lamina propria and deeper parts leading to stiffness of the mucosa and restricted mouth opening,
fibrosis of the lining mucosa of the upper digestive tract involving the oral cavity, oro- and hypo-pharynx and the upper
two-thirds of the oesophagus. Optical reflectance measurements have been used to extract diagnostic information from a
variety of tissue types, in vivo. We apply diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantitatively monitor tumour response to
chemotherapy. Twenty patients with submucous fibrosis were diagnosed with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and
treated with the chemotherapy drug, Dexamethasone sodium phosphate and Hyaluronidase injection for seven weeks and
after the treatment they were again subjected to the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The major observed spectral
alterations on pre and post treated submucous fibrosis is an increase in the diffuse reflectance from 450 to 600 nm.
Normal mucosa has showed higher reflectance when compared to the pre and post-treated cases. The spectral changes
were quantified and correlated to conventional diagnostic results viz., maximum mouth opening, tongue protrusion and
burning sensation. The results of this study suggest that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy may also be considered as
complementary optical techniques to monitor oral tissue transformation.