We investigated ultrafast rogue waves in fiber lasers and found three different patterns of rogue waves: single- peaks, twin-peaks, and triple-peaks. The statistics of the different patterns as a function of the pump power of the laser reveals that the probability for all rogue waves patterns increase close to the laser threshold. We developed a numerical model which prove that the ultrafast rogue waves patterns result from both the polarization mode dispersion in the fiber and the non-instantaneous nature of the saturable absorber. This discovery reveals that there are three different types of rogue waves in fiber lasers: slow, fast, and ultrafast, which relate to three different time-scales and are governed by three different sets of equations: the laser rate equations, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and the saturable absorber equations, accordingly. This discovery is highly important for analyzing rogue waves and other extreme events in fiber lasers and can lead to realizing types of rogue waves which were not possible so far such as triangular rogue waves.
Bright-Dark Rogue Wave in Mode-Locked Fibre Laser Hani Kbashi1*, Amos Martinez1, S. A. Kolpakov1, Chengbo Mou, Alex Rozhin1, Sergey V. Sergeyev1 1Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, School of Engineering and Applied Science Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK email@example.com , 0044 755 3534 388 Keywords: Optical rogue wave, Bright-Dark rogue wave, rogue wave, mode-locked fiber laser, polarization instability. Abstract: Rogue waves (RWs) are statistically rare localized waves with high amplitude that suddenly appear and disappear in oceans, water tanks, and optical systems . The investigation of these events in optics, optical rogue waves, is of interest for both fundamental research and applied science. Recently, we have shown that the adjustment of the in-cavity birefringence and pump polarization leads to emerge optical RW events [2-4]. Here, we report the first experimental observation of vector bright-dark RWs in an erbium–doped stretched pulse mode-locked fiber laser. The change of induced in-cavity birefringence provides an opportunity to observe RW events at pump power is a little higher than the lasing threshold. Polarization instabilities in the laser cavity result in the coupling between two orthogonal linearly polarized components leading to the emergence of bright-dark RWs. The observed clusters belongs to the class of slow optical RWs because their lifetime is of order of a thousand of laser cavity roundtrip periods. References: 1. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath,and B. Jalali, Optical rogue waves," Nature, 450, 1054–1057, 2007. 2. S. V. Sergeyev, S. A. Kolpakov, C. Mou, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, and V. Kalashnikov, “Slow deterministic vector rogue waves,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320K (2016). 3. S. A. Kolpakov, H. Kbashi, and S. V. Sergeyev, “Dynamics of vector rogue waves in a fiber laser with a ring cavity,” Optica, 3, 8, 870, (2016). 5. S. Kolpakov, H. Kbashi, and S. Sergeyev, “Slow optical rogue waves in a unidirectional fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper JW2A.56.
We present an experimental and theoretical results of a study of a complex nonlinear polarization dynamics in a passively self-mode-locked erbium-doped fiber oscillator implemented in a ring configuration and operating near lasing threshold. The theoretical model consists of seven coupled non-linear equations and takes into account both orthogonal states of polarizations in the fiber. The experiment confirmed the existence of seven eigenfrequencies, predicted by the model due to polarization instability near lasing threshold. By adjusting the state of polarization of the pump and in-cavity birefringence we changed some eigenfrequencies from being different (non-degenerate state) to matching (degenerate state). The non-degenerate states of oscillator lead to the L-shaped probability distribution function and true rogue wave regime with a positive dominant Lyapunov exponent value between 1.4 and 2.6. Small detuning from partially degenerate case also leads to L-shaped probability distribution function with the tail trespassing eight standard deviations threshold, giving periodic patterns of pulses along with positive dominant Lyapunov exponent of a filtered signal between 0.6 and 3.2. The partial degeneration, in turn, guides to quasi-symmetric distribution and the value of dominant Lyapunov exponent of 42 which is a typical value for systems with a source of the strongly nonhomogeneous external noise.
For an erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a new type of the vector rogue waves emerging as a result of the chaotic evolution of the trajectories between two orthogonal states of polarization on the Poincare sphere. In terms of fluctuation induced phenomena, by tuning polarization controller for the pump wave and in-cavity polarization controller, we are able to control the Kramers time, i.e. the residence time of the trajectory in vicinity of each orthogonal state of polarization, and so can cause the rare events satisfying rogue wave criteria and having the form of transitions from the state with the long residence time to the state with a short residence time.
In this paper, we present the results of theoretical and experimental study of the actively Q-switched erbium-doped
fiber laser realized in symmetric configuration. We extend the traveling wave model to this type of fiber lasers and
show that such laser permits one to obtain easily the short giant pulses (17 ns on 3 dB level) with small adjacent subpulses.
Our model accounts all point losses including loss on the fiber splices and other intra-cavity devices and also
the distributed losses such as the active fiber background loss and loss owing to excited state absorption observed in
erbium-doped fibers. We compare the experimental data with the modeling results and reveal their good matching,
once the laser parameters are properly accounted in the model.
Volume holographic gratings have recently attracted interest as wavelength-selective devices, for applications
such as wavelength stabilizers for laser diode sources. These thick gratings are usually produced using various
photosensitive materials like photo-thermo-refractive glass and specially prepared polymers. These materials
often require two or more process steps for production of volume holographic gratings. In this study several
copolymers with MethylMethAcrylate as base material are compared. Unlike commercially available PMMA,
the polymers have a glass transition temperature up to 155 °C, which enables the use on higher laser powers.
The refractive index of the polymer is modified using 325-nm-radiation. The polymers were not sensitized by
peroxidation prior to irradiation, and after the irradiation process, no development was needed. The gratings
were recorded with both a Lloyd mirror setup and the well-known phase mask method. The gratings produced
have a calculated refractive index variation in the range of 10<sup>-5</sup>. The reflection characteristics were measured
with a modified Michelson interferometer and a tunable laser source. Volume holographic gratings with extremely
narrow bandwidth and angular selectivity can be produced on some of the polymers. The production cost of
the gratings is low and they can be used for multiple applications such as wavelength tuning and wavelength
selection of diode lasers at high power levels.