The phase of the development engineering life cycle in which the greatest risk traditionally emerges is that of integration and test, culminating in final acceptance. Attention is often paid to integration and test aspects too late to influence the earlier phases of the life cycle, where the seeds are sown for success or failure. This paper presents a strategy that actively addresses integration aspects as early as possible, to mitigate these risks, where possible, well ahead of commencement of the implementation of the integration phase. A multi-sensor Naval fire-control system is taken as an example, and this is used to focus on the essential elements of the strategy for the successful integration of Radar and EO sensors. These include: design for integration, a robust and accurate method of aligning the sensors, and test cases which reflect the in service usage of the system. The methods of alignment both in the dockyard and at sea are described, together with a threads analysis approach to determining system functionality, user operational requirements and hence determining system functional test coverage. Finally conclusions are drawn, comparing the classical approach to the one described in the paper, showing the benefits to de-risking the engineering life cycle and achieving an in-service system which has the functionality and performance the user is expecting.
The strengths and weaknesses of centimetre, (I Band), millimetric (Ka band) and EO systems (daylight TV, Thermal Imager Sensors) are discussed, as applied to both the problems of acquiring and tracking naval threats, in order to achieve optimum engagements with Command to Line of Sight (CLOS) weapons. The limitations of the centimetre, millimetre and EO bands with varying target heights, seastates and visibility conditions are identified, including multipath geometry, filtering to counter multipath and utilisation of EO sensors in the Naval environment worldwide. Mechanisms of combining both Radar and EO Sensors to produce an accurate differential tracking output (target to missile), in order to control a CLOS missile are described, together with filter configurations allowing a true differential output to be produced, de-coupled from sensor sightline motion. This includes the application of sensor merging, Kalman filtering and Command Off the Line of Sight (COLOS) techniques. Finally there is a description of both an in-service and projected fire control system controlling a Point Defence Missile System (PDMS), including the results from a practical demonstration of multi-sensor tracking of an air target in a sea going environment.