This paper expands on previous work in the field of high power tapered semiconductor amplifiers and integrated master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) devices. The devices are designed for watt-class power output and single-mode operation for free-space optical communication. This paper reports on improvements to the fabrication of these devices resulting in doubled electrical-to-optical efficiency, improved thermal properties, and improved spectral properties. A newly manufactured device yielded a peak power output of 375 mW continuous-wave (CW) at 3000 mA of current to the power amplifier and 300 mA of current to the master oscillator. This device had a peak power conversion efficiency of 11.6% at 15° C, compared to the previous device, which yielded a peak power conversion efficiency of only 5.0% at 15° C. The new device also exhibited excellent thermal and spectral properties, with minimal redshift up to 3 A CW on the power amplifier. The new device shows great improvement upon the excessive self-heating and resultant redshift of the previous device. Such spectral improvements are desirable for free-space optical communications, as variation in wavelength can degrade signal quality depending on the detectors being used and the medium of propagation.
Single mode tapered semiconductor lasers producing watt-class output powers often suffer from beam quality degradation as drive current increases. The dominant degradation mechanism is believed to be poor gain clamping in the periphery of the optical mode; as the injection current is increased, excess gain in this region eventually leads to parasitic lasing in the amplifier section of the device. However, this effect has not previously been directly observed and other effects such as thermal lensing and gain guiding also likely contribute. Nevertheless, it has been previously shown that by engineering the overlap of the gain profile with the nonuniform optical intensity distribution, performance can be significantly improved. In this work, we report on the direct observation and mapping of the 2D gain profile in a tapered semiconductor laser. InGaAsP-based tapered diode lasers are fabricated with windowed openings on the back (substrate) side of the chip. The devices are soldered junction down for continuous wave operation. An optical microscope is used to observe and map the 2D spontaneous emission profile, and hence gain and carrier density, of the device under operation. The results are compared to a theoretical model to better understand the physical limitations of beam quality degradation in tapered diode lasers.
Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) enable a range of applications such as data transmission, trace sensing, atomic clocks, and optical mice. For many of these applications, the output power and beam quality are both critical (i.e. high output power with good beam quality is desired). Multi-mode VCSELs offer much higher power than single-mode devices, but this comes at the expense of lower beam quality. Directly observing the resolved mode structure of multi-mode VCSELs would enable engineers to better understand the underlying physics and help them to develop multi-mode devices with improved beam quality. In this work, a low-cost, high-resolution (<3 pm) Echelle grating spectrometer system is used to map the two-dimensional VCSEL near-field emission profile. The system spectrally disperses the VCSEL beam and images it with high magnification onto a CMOS camera. The narrow spectral content of each LP mode allows direct observation of the modal content of the VCSEL.