The Keck Planet Finder (KPF) is a fiber-fed, high-resolution, high-stability spectrometer in development for the W.M. Keck Observatory. To measure Doppler shifts to 0.5 m/s or better requires some of the optics be stable to 2 nm vertically and 2 nrad in pitch angle throughout a potentially one hour long observation. One traditional approach to this thermal stability problem is to build a metal bench and then control the spectrometer thermal environment to milli-Kelvin levels. An alternative approach used by KPF is to employ a Zerodur bench of extremely low coefficient of expansion (CTE), which relaxes the thermal stability required for the spectrometer assembly. Furthermore, Zerodur optics with integral mounts are used where possible, and are placed in contact with the bench through Zerodur shims. Springs are used to preload the optics and shims within pockets machined into the Zerodur bench. We will describe how this approach has been adapted for each optic (some of which are 450 mm high with a mass of 30 kg), and how the system meets our earthquake survival requirement of 0.92 g. This mounting scheme allows us to avoid using high-CTE metals or adhesives within the optic mounting system, and therefore fully exploit the high thermal stability of the Zerodur optical bench.
The Keck Planet Finder (KPF) is a fiber-fed, high-resolution, high-stability spectrometer in development for the W.M. Keck Observatory. The instrument recently passed its preliminary design review and is currently in the detailed design phase. KPF is designed to characterize exoplanets using Doppler spectroscopy with a single measurement precision of 0.5 m s<sup>−1</sup> or better; however, its resolution and stability will enable a wide variety of other astrophysical pursuits. KPF will have a 200 mm collimated beam diameter and a resolving power greater than 80,000. The design includes a green channel (445 nm to 600 nm) and red channel (600 nm to 870 nm). A novel design aspect of KPF is the use of a Zerodur optical bench, and Zerodur optics with integral mounts, to provide stability against thermal expansion and contraction effects.
We present the design and test results of a double-scrambler and fiber agitator system for the Keck Planet Finder (KPF) spectrograph. The mechanical agitator for modal noise suppression is constructed from two linear stages with the fibers mounted in a “W” curve. When driven back-and-forth at different rates, the stages change the position of the fiber curves, and hence vary the modes propagating through the fiber. Near-field temporal centroid shifts caused by modal-noise are reduced by a factor of 100 by the agitator, while mid-range spatial frequencies have reduced power by a factor of ∼300 in the near-field, and ∼1000 in the far-field. The scrambling system incorporates two octagonal fibers, and a scrambler consisting of two identical cemented lenses ∼20 cm apart, which exchanges the optical near- and far-fields of the fibers. The scrambler shows scrambling gains >16,000 in the near-field, and >40,000 in the far-field. The measured throughput efficiency of 99.3% of the expected maximum demonstrates that scrambler-induced focal ratio degradation (FRD) is minimal. The scrambler also serves as the feed-through into the vacuum chamber where the spectrograph is housed, thereby removing concerns about stressing the fibers, and introducing FRD, at this interface. Our illumination stabilization system, consisting of two octagonal fibers, a two lens scrambler, and a mechanical agitator, produces very homogeneous fiber output in both the near and far-fields. When coupled to the Keck Planet Finder spectrograph, this system provides illumination stability corresponding to a velocity of 0.30 m s<sup>−1</sup> .
The Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission designed to study the ionosphere. ICON will examine the Earth's upper atmosphere to better understand the relationship between Earth weather and space-weather drivers. ICON will accomplish its science objectives using a suite of 4 instruments, one of which is the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV). EUV will measure daytime altitude intensity profile and spatial distribution of ionized oxygen emissions (O<sup>+</sup> at 83.4 nm and 61.7 nm) on the limb in the thermosphere (100 to 500 km tangent altitude). EUV is a single-optic imaging spectrometer that observes in the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum. In this paper, we describe instrumental performance calibration measurement techniques and data analysis for EUV. Various measurements including Lyman-α scattering, instrumental and component efficiency, and field-of-view alignment verification were done in custom high-vacuum ultraviolet calibration facilities. Results from the measurements and analysis will be used to understand the instrument performance during the in-flight calibration and observations after launch.
A method using non-sequential Zemax to produce a pixelated synthetic spectrum is described. This simulation was developed for the Keck Planet Finder (KPF) instrument, and will prove useful for engineering performance analyses (stability, stray light, order cross-talk, distortion, etc.). It has also provided a set of synthetic spectra to be used during the development of the data pipeline. Various aspects concerning the construction of the spectrum are described, including: converting a model from sequential to non-sequential Zemax, the creation of Zemax coating files for echelle blaze functions, and the generation of spectrum source files (solar, thorium-argon, incandescent, Fabry-Perot etalon and laser frequency comb).
Techniques are described for tolerancing a radial velocity spectrometer system within Zemax, including: how to set up and verify the tolerancing model, performance metrics and tolerance operands used, as well as post- Zemax analysis methods. Use of the tolerancing model for various analyses will be discussed, such as: alignment sensitivity, radial velocity sensitivity, and sensitivity of the optical system to temperature changes. Tolerance results from the Keck Planet Finder project (a precision radial velocity spectrometer of asymmetric white pupil design) will be shown.
KPF is a fiber-fed, high-resolution, high-stability spectrometer in development at the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory for the W.M. Keck Observatory. The instrument is designed to characterize exoplanets via Doppler spectroscopy with a single measurement precision of 0.5ms<sup>-1</sup> or better, however its resolution and stability will enable a wide variety of astrophysical pursuits. KPF will have a 200mm collimated beam diameter and a resolving power of >80,000. The design includes a green channel (440nm to 590 nm) and red channel (590nm to 850 nm). A novel design aspect of KPF is the use of a Zerodur optical bench, and Zerodur optics with integral mounts, to provide stability against thermal expansion and contraction effects.