It is impossible to print glass directly from a melt, layer by layer. Glass is not only very sensitive to temperature gradients between different layers but also to the cooling process. To achieve a glass state the melt, has to be cooled rapidly to avoid crystallization of the material and then annealed to remove cooling induced stress. In 3D-printing of glass the objects are shaped at room temperature and then fired. The material properties of the final objects are crucially dependent on the frit size of the glass powder used during shaping, the chemical formula of the binder and the firing procedure. For frit sizes below 250 μm, we seem to find a constant volume of pores of less than 5%. Decreasing frit size leads to an increase in the number of pores which then leads to an increase of opacity. The two different binders, 2- hydroxyethyl cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, generate very different porosities. The porosity of samples with 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose is similar to frit-only samples, whereas carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt creates a glass foam. The surface finish is determined by the material the glass comes into contact with during firing.
The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing
applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as
disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all
rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords.
Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on
ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception.
By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set
and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting
graph becomes a small-world network.
In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences,
we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make
such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of
nodes in such a document.
Many image recognition tasks are well-suited to parallel processing. The most obvious example is that many imaging
tasks require the analysis of multiple images. From this standpoint, then, parallel processing need be no more
complicated than assigning individual images to individual processors. However, there are three less trivial categories of
parallel processing that will be considered in this paper: parallel processing (1) by task; (2) by image region; and (3) by
meta-algorithm. Parallel processing by task allows the assignment of multiple workflows-as diverse as optical
character recognition [OCR], document classification and barcode reading-to parallel pipelines. This can substantially
decrease time to completion for the document tasks. For this approach, each parallel pipeline is generally performing a
different task. Parallel processing by image region allows a larger imaging task to be sub-divided into a set of parallel
pipelines, each performing the same task but on a different data set. This type of image analysis is readily addressed by a
map-reduce approach. Examples include document skew detection and multiple face detection and tracking. Finally,
parallel processing by meta-algorithm allows different algorithms to be deployed on the same image simultaneously.
This approach may result in improved accuracy.
We present a system for automatic, on-line visual inspection and print defect detection for variable data printing (VDP). This system can be used to automatically stop the printing process and alert the operator to problems. We lay out the components required for constructing a vision-based inspection system and show that our approach is novel for the high-speed detection of defects on variable data. When implemented in a high-speed digital printing press, the system allows a single skilled operator to monitor and maintain several presses, reducing the number of operators required to run a shop floor of presses as well as reduce wasted consumables when a defect goes undetected.
We present a new mobile service for the translation of text from images taken by consumer-grade cell-phone cameras.
Such capability represents a new paradigm for users where a simple image provides the basis for a service. The ubiquity
and ease of use of cell-phone cameras enables acquisition and transmission of images anywhere and at any time a user
wishes, delivering rapid and accurate translation over the phone's MMS and SMS facilities. Target text is extracted completely
automatically, requiring no bounding box delineation or related user intervention. The service uses localization,
binarization, text deskewing, and optical character recognition (OCR) in its analysis. Once the text is translated, an SMS
message is sent to the user with the result. Further novelties include that no software installation is required on the handset,
any service provider or camera phone can be used, and the entire service is implemented on the server side.
This paper describes the statistical and hardware processes involved in qualifying two related printing features for their deployment in product (e.g. document and package) security. The first is a multi-colored tiling feature that can also be combined with microtext to provide additional forms of security protection. The color information is authenticated automatically with a variety of handheld, desktop and production scanners. The microtext is authenticated either following magnification or manually by a field inspector. The second security feature can also be tile-based. It involves the use of two inks that provide the same visual color, but differ in their transparency to infrared (IR) wavelengths. One of the inks is effectively transparent to IR wavelengths, allowing emitted IR light to pass through. The other ink is effectively opaque to IR wavelengths. These inks allow the printing of a seemingly uniform, or spot, color over a (truly) uniform IR emitting ink layer. The combination converts a uniform covert ink and a spot color to a variable data region capable of encoding identification sequences with high density. Also, it allows the extension of variable data printing for security to ostensibly static printed regions, affording greater security protection while meeting branding and marketing specifications.
This paper presents a novel method of automatically adding navigation capabilities to re-mastered electronic books. We first analyze the need for a generic and robust system to automatically construct navigation links into re-mastered books. We then introduce the core algorithm based on text matching for building the links. The proposed method utilizes the tree-structured dictionary and directional graph of the table of contents to efficiently conduct the text matching. Information fusion further increases the robustness of the algorithm. The experimental results on the MIT Press digital library project are discussed and the key functional features of the system are illustrated. We have also investigated how the quality of the OCR engine affects the linking algorithm. In addition, the analogy between this work and Web link mining has been pointed out.