Propionibacterium acnes (<i>P. acnes</i>), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by <i>P. acnes</i>, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against <i>P. acnes</i>. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, <i>Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.</i> and <i>Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.</i>, were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of <i>P. acnes</i> and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed <i>P. acnes</i>. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.
The purpose of this study was to develop alendronate (Aln)-eluting Ti substrates to induce osteogenic differentiation of
human buccal fat cells (HBFCs). The surface of pristine Ti was modified by dopamine (DOPA) and then heparin was
grafted onto the aminated Ti surfaces to achieve the Aln-eluting Ti system. Aln was subsequently immobilized on the
surface of heparinized Ti (Hep-Ti). Pristine Ti and surface-modified-Ti were characterized by scanning electron
microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle. Osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs on
the surface of pristine-Ti, Hep-Ti, Aln (1 mg)/Hep-Ti, and Aln (5 mg)/Hep-Ti was demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase
(ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. Successful immobilization of
Aln on Hep-Ti was confirmed by XPS and contact angle. Aln/Hep-Ti showed the sustained release for up to 28 days.
Additionally, HBFCs cultured on Aln/Hep-Ti substrates showed significantly induced ALP activity, calcium deposition,
and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. These results suggest that Aln-eluting Ti substrates have a potential
effect on osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs and will be a promising material for bone regeneration.