Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is FDA-approved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. Currently, placement of DBS leads is guided through a combination of anatomical targeting and intraoperative microelectrode recordings. The physiological mapping process requires several hours, and each pass of the microelectrode into the brain increases the risk of hemorrhage. Optical Coherence Domain Reflectometry (OCDR) in combination with current methodologies could reduce surgical time and increase accuracy and safety by providing data on structures some distance ahead of the probe.
For this preliminary study, we scanned a rat brain in vitro using polarization-insensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). For accurate measurement of intensity and attenuation, polarization effects arising from tissue birefringence are removed by polarization diversity detection. A fresh rat brain was sectioned along the coronal plane and immersed in a 5 mm cuvette with saline solution.
OCT images from a 1294 nm light source showed depth profiles up to 2 mm. Light intensity and attenuation rate distinguished various tissue structures such as hippocampus, cortex, external capsule, internal capsule, and optic tract. Attenuation coefficient is determined by linear fitting of the single scattering regime in averaged A-scans where Beer’s law is applicable. Histology showed very good correlation with OCT images. From the preliminary study using OCT, we conclude that OCDR is a promising approach for guiding DBS probe placement.
Corneal hydration plays an essential role in maintaining optimal vision. During laser ablation surgery, corneal hydration varies greatly and is likely to affect the outcome. Quantitative measurements of this interaction may help improve the results of vision correction surgery. In addition, prescreening of corneal hydration could be used to correct the laser surgery procedure for hydration variation in the patient population.
We present a functional extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to measure cornea hydration in vitro using two light sources simultaneously, one at 1294 nm (negligible water absorption loss) and another at 1410 nm (large water absorption loss). Measuring the ratio of the intensity profile at these two wavelengths allows us to separate the effect of absorptive attenuation from the reflectivity structure of the sample. We first measured the differential absorption coefficient of a calibration target: a 1 mm cuvette containing controlled mixtures of water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O). The optical properties of heavy water are almost identical with those of water, except that it has negligible absorption near 1410 nm. Next, we scanned in vitro fresh cornea bathed in Optisol. We then scraped off the epithelium and immersed the cornea into Balanced Salt Solution in order to increase the hydration through swelling. Then, the cornea was immersed in a 15% Dextran solution to reverse the swelling. After the OCT scans, the cornea hydration level was evaluated by standard weight measurement.
The result of the calibration experiment showed that a strong correlation exists between measured differential water absorption coefficient and actual water content within the cuvette. We derived the hydration level profile over corneal depth from a least squares fit of the log-intensity ratio. Average hydration from the OCT data agreed with the hydration determined by weight measurement.