The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is one of the first instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). The G-CLEF is a fiber fed, optical band echelle spectrograph that is capable of extremely precise radial velocity measurement. The G-CLEF Flexure Control Camera (FCC) is included as a part in the G-CLEF Front End Assembly (GCFEA), which monitors the field images focused on a fiber mirror to control the flexure and the focus errors within the GCFEA. The five optical components constituting the FCC are aligned on a common optical bench. The order of the optical train is: a collimator, neutral density filters, a focus analyzer, a reimaging camera barrel, and a detector module. The collimator receives the beam reflected by the fiber mirror and consists of a triplet lens. The neutral density filters are located just after the collimator to make it possible a broad range star brightness as a target or a guide. The tent prism focus analyzer is positioned at a pupil produced by the collimator and is used to measure a focus offset. The reimaging camera barrel includes two pairs of doublet lenses to focus the beam onto the CCD focal plane. The detector module is composed of a linear translator and a field de-rotator. In this article, we present the optical and mechanical detailed designs of the G-CLEF FCC.
The Fast-steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) of Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) consists of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments with an effective diameter of 3.2 m, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4 m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter by adapting axial support actuators. Breakaway System (BAS) is installed for protecting FSM from seismic overload or other unknown shocks in the axial support. When an earthquake or other unknown shocks come in, the springs in the BAS should limit the force along the axial support axis not to damage the mirror. We tested a single BAS in the lab by changing the input force to the BAS in a resolution of 10 N and measuring the displacement of the system. In this paper, we present experimental results from changing the input force gradually. We will discuss the detailed characteristics of the BAS in this report.
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will feature two Gregorian secondary mirrors, an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) and a fast-steering secondary mirror (FSM). The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and consists of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter. This tiptilt capability thus enhances performance of the telescope in the seeing limited observation mode. The tip-tilt motion of the mirror is produced by three piezo actuators. In this paper we present a simulation model of the tip-tilt system which focuses on the piezo-actuators. The model includes hysteresis effects in the piezo elements and the position feedback control loop.
The Fast-Steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) of Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) consists of seven 1.1m diameter segments with effective diameter of 3.2m. Each segment is held by three axial supports and a central lateral support with a vacuum system for pressure compensation. Both on-axis and off-axis mirror segments are optimized under various design considerations. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter. The design of the FSM mirror and support system configuration was optimized using finite element analyses and optical performance analyses. The design of the mirror cell assembly will be performed including sub-assembly parts consisting of axial supports, lateral support, breakaway mechanism, seismic restraints, and pressure seal. . In this paper, the mechanical results and optical performance results are addressed for the optimized FSM mirror and mirror cell assembly, the design considerations are addressed, and performance prediction results are discussed in detail with respect to the specifications
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will be equipped with two Gregorian secondary mirrors; a fast-steering secondary mirror (FSM) for seeing-limited operations and an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) for adaptive optics observing modes. The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and is comprised of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary mirror. Each FSM segment has a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and jitter. The FSM is mounted on a two-stage positioning system; a macro-cell that positions the entire FSM segments as an assembly and seven hexapod actuators that position and drive the individual FSM segments. In this paper, we present a technical overview of the FSM development status. More details in each area of development will be presented in other papers by the FSM team.
The Fast Steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will have seven 1.05 m diameter circular segments and rapid tip-tilt capability to stabilize images under wind loading. In this paper, we report on the assembly, integration, and test (AIT) plan for this complex opto-mechanical system. Each fast-steering mirror segment has optical, mechanical, and electrical components that support tip-tilt capability for fine coalignment and fast guiding to attenuate wind shake and jitter. The components include polished and lightweighted mirror, lateral support, axial support assembly, seismic restraints, and mirror cell. All components will be assembled, integrated and tested to the required mechanical and optical tolerances following a concrete plan. Prior to assembly, fiducial references on all components and subassemblies will be located by three-dimensional coordinate measurement machines to assist with assembly and initial alignment. All electronics components are also installed at designed locations. We will integrate subassemblies within the required tolerances using precision tooling and jigs. Performance tests of both static and dynamic properties will be conducted in different orientations, including facing down, horizontal pointing, and intermediate angles using custom tools. In addition, the FSM must be capable of being easily and safely removed from the top-end assemble and recoated during maintenance. In this paper, we describe preliminary AIT plan including our test approach, equipment list, and test configuration for the FSM segments.
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will be equipped with two Gregorian secondary mirrors: a fast-steering mirror (FSM) system for seeing-limited operations and an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) for adaptive optics observing modes. The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and is comprised of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment has a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and jitter. To verify the tip-tilt performance at various orientations, we performed tiptilt tests using a conceptual prototype of the FSM (FSMP) which was developed at KASI for R&D of key technologies for FSM. In this paper, we present configuration, methodology, results, and lessons from the FSMP test which will be considered in the development of FSM.
The Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) was designed for high-throughput with the expectation of being a visitor instrument at progressively larger observing facilities. IGRINS achieves R∼45000 and > 20,000 resolution elements spanning the H and K bands (1.45-2.5μm) by employing a silicon immersion grating as the primary disperser and volume-phase holographic gratings as cross-dispersers. After commissioning on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, the instrument had more than 350 scheduled nights in the first two years. With a fixed format echellogram and no cryogenic mechanisms, spectra produced by IGRINS at different facilities have nearly identical formats. The first host facility for IGRINS was Lowell Observatory’s 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). For the DCT a three-element fore-optic assembly was designed to be mounted in front of the cryostat window and convert the f/6.1 telescope beam to the f/8.8 beam required by the default IGRINS input optics. The larger collecting area and more reliable pointing and tracking of the DCT improved the faint limit of IGRINS, relative to the McDonald 2.7-meter, by ∼1 magnitude. The Gemini South 8.1-meter telescope was the second facility for IGRINS to visit. The focal ratio for Gemini is f/16, which required a swap of the four-element input optics assembly inside the IGRINS cryostat. At Gemini, observers have access to many southern-sky targets and an additional gain of ∼1.5 magnitudes compared to IGRINS at the DCT. Additional adjustments to IGRINS include instrument mounts for each facility, a glycol cooled electronics rack, and software modifications. Here we present instrument modifications, report on the success and challenges of being a visitor instrument, and highlight the science output of the instrument after four years and 699 nights on sky. The successful design and adaptation of IGRINS for various facilities make it a reliable forerunner for GMTNIRS, which we now anticipate commissioning on one of the 6.5 meter Magellan telescopes prior to the completion of the Giant Magellan Telescope.
The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is an instrument that is being designed to exceed the state-of-the-art radial velocity (RV) precision achievable with the current generation of stellar velocimeters. It is simultaneously being designed to enable a wide range of scientific programs, prominently by operating to blue wavelengths (< 3500Å). G-CLEF will be the first light facility instrument on the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) when the GMT is commissioned in 2023. G-CLEF is a fiber-fed, vacuum-enclosed spectrograph with an asymmetric white pupil echelle design. We discuss several innovative structural, optical and control system features that differentiate G-CLEF from previous precision RV instruments.
The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is the very first light instrument of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). The G-CLEF is a fiber feed, optical band echelle spectrograph that is capable of extremely precise radial velocity measurement. KASI (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute) is responsible for Flexure Control Camera (FCC) included in the G-CLEF Front End Assembly (GCFEA). The FCC is a kind of guide camera, which monitors the field images focused on a fiber mirror to control the flexure and the focus errors within the GCFEA. The FCC consists of five optical components: a collimator including triple lenses for producing a pupil, neutral density filters allowing us to use much brighter star as a target or a guide, a tent prism as a focus analyzer for measuring the focus offset at the fiber mirror, a reimaging camera with three pair of lenses for focusing the beam on a CCD focal plane, and a CCD detector for capturing the image on the fiber mirror. In this article, we present the optical and mechanical FCC designs which have been modified after the PDR in April 2015.
The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a revolutionary instrument that exploits broad spectral coverage at high-resolution in the near-infrared. IGRINS employs a silicon immersion grating as the primary disperser, and volume-phase holographic gratings cross-disperse the H and K bands onto Teledyne Hawaii-2RG arrays. The use of an immersion grating facilitates a compact cryostat while providing simultaneous wavelength coverage from 1.45 - 2.5 μm. There are no cryogenic mechanisms in IGRINS and its high-throughput design maximizes sensitivity. IGRINS on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory is nearly as sensitive as CRIRES at the 8 meter Very Large Telescope. However, IGRINS at R≈45,000 has more than 30 times the spectral grasp of CRIRES* in a single exposure. Here we summarize the performance of IGRINS from the first 300 nights of science since commissioning in summer 2014. IGRINS observers have targeted solar system objects like Pluto and Ceres, comets, nearby young stars, star forming regions like Taurus and Ophiuchus, the interstellar medium, photo dissociation regions, the Galactic Center, planetary nebulae, galaxy cores and super novae. The rich near-infrared spectra of these objects motivate unique science cases, and provide information on instrument performance. There are more than ten submitted IGRINS papers and dozens more in preparation. With IGRINS on a 2.7m telescope we realize signal-to-noise ratios greater than 100 for K=10.3 magnitude sources in one hour of exposure time. Although IGRINS is Cassegrain mounted, instrument flexure is sub-pixel thanks to the compact design. Detector characteristics and stability have been tested regularly, allowing us to adjust the instrument operation and improve science quality. A wide variety of science programs motivate new tools for analyzing high-resolution spectra including multiplexed spectral extraction, atmospheric model fitting, rotation and radial velocity, unique line identification, and circumstellar disk modeling. Here we discuss details of instrument performance, summarize early science results, and show the characteristics of IGRINS as a versatile near-infrared spectrograph and forerunner of future silicon immersion grating spectrographs like iSHELL<sup>2</sup> and GMTNIRS.<sup>3</sup>
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will be featured with two Gregorian secondary mirrors, an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) and a fast-steering secondary mirror (FSM). The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and built as seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for fine co-alignment of the telescope sub-apertures and fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter. This tip-tilt capability thus enhances performance of the telescope in the seeing limited observation mode. As the first stage of the FSM development, Phase 0 study was conducted to develop a program plan detailing the design and manufacturing process for the seven FSM segments. The FSM development plan has been matured through an internal review by the GMTO-KASI team in May 2016 and fully assessed by an external review in June 2016. In this paper, we present the technical aspects of the FSM development plan.
IGRINS, the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer includes an immersion grating made of silicon and observes
both H-band (1.49~1.80 μm) and K-band (1.96~2.46 μm), simultaneously. In order to align such an infrared optical
system, the compensator in its optical components has been adjusted within tolerances at room temperature without
vacuum environment. However, such a system will ultimately operate at low temperature and vacuum with no
adjustment mechanism. Therefore a reasonable relationship between different environmental variations such as room and
low temperature might provide useful knowledge to align the system properly. We are attempting to develop a new
process to predict the Wave Front Error (WFE), and to produce correct mechanical control values when the optical
system is perturbed by moving the lens at room temperature. The purpose is to provide adequate optical performance
without making changes at operating temperature. In other words, WFE was measured at operating temperature without
any modification but a compensator was altered correctly at room temperature to meet target performance. The ‘no
adjustment’ philosophy was achieved by deterministic mechanical adjustment at room temperature from a simulation
that we developed. In this study, an achromatic doublet lens was used to substitute for the H and K band camera of
IGRINS. This novel process exhibits accuracy predictability of about 0.002 λ rms WFE and can be applied to a cooled
infrared optical systems.
We are designing a sensitive high resolution (R=60,000-100,000) spectrograph for the Giant Magellan Telescope
(GMTNIRS, the GMT Near-Infrared Spectrograph). Using large-format IR arrays and silicon immersion gratings, this
instrument will cover all of the J (longer than 1.1 μm), H, and K atmospheric windows or all of the L and M windows in
a single exposure. GMTNIRS makes use of the GMT adaptive optics system for all bands. The small slits will offer the
possibility of spatially resolved spectroscopy as well as superior sensitivity and wavelength coverage. The GMTNIRS
team is composed of scientists and engineers at the University of Texas, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science
Institute, and Kyung Hee University. In this paper, we describe the optical and mechanical design of the instrument. The
principal innovative feature of the design is the use of silicon immersion gratings which are now being produced by our
team with sufficient quality to permit designs with high resolving power and broad instantaneous wavelength coverage
across the near-IR.
The Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) and the Department of Astronomy at the University of Texas
at Austin (UT) are developing a near infrared wide-band high resolution spectrograph, IGRINS. IGRINS can observe all
of the H- and K-band atmospheric windows with a resolving power of 40,000 in a single exposure. The spectrograph
uses a white pupil cross-dispersed layout and includes a dichroic to divide the light between separate H and K cameras,
each provided with a 2kx2k HgCdTe detector. A silicon immersion grating serves as the primary disperser and a pair of
volume phased holographic gratings serve as cross dispersers, allowing the high resolution echelle spectrograph to be
very compact. IGRINS is designed to be compatible with telescopes ranging in diameter from 2.7m (the Harlan J. Smith
telescope; HJST) to 4 - 8 m telescopes. Commissioning and initial operation will be on the 2.7m telescope at McDonald
Observatory from 2013.
We report on fabrication and photon detection experiments of Nb/Al and Ta/Al superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs).
5-layer STJ thin-films were fabricated using UV photolithography, DC magnetron sputtering, reactive ion etching, and
chemical vapor deposition techniques. STJs with 4 different sizes (20, 40, 60 and 80 μm) were deposited on sapphire
substrates and tested in a two stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator with an operating temperature ~ 50 mK.
Photons from different light sources are injected into the junctions via an optical fiber in combination with a
monochromator which can produce photons from 30 nm to 550 nm with 0.1 nm resolution. The junction is read out
through a charge-sensitive preamplifier followed by a shaping stage. We have measured some performance indicators
and quality factors of the junctions from resultant I-V curves.
The Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) is building the KASI Near Infrared Camera System (KASINICS) for the 61-cm telescope at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in Korea. With KASINICS we will mostly do time monitoring observations, e.g., thermal variations of Jovian planet atmospheres, variable stars, and blazars. We use a 512 x 512 InSb array (Aladdin III Quadrant, Raytheon Co.) for L-band observations as well as J, H, and Ks-bands. The field-of-view of the array is 6 x 6 arcmin with 0.7 arcsec/pixel. Since the SOAO 61-cm telescope was originally designed for visible band observations, we adopt an Offner relay optical system with a Lyot stop to eliminate thermal background emission from the telescope structures. In order to minimize weight and volume, and to overcome thermal contraction problems, we optimize the mechanical design of the camera using the finite-element-method (FEM) analysis. Most of the camera parts including the mirrors are manufactured from the same melt of aluminum alloy to ensure homologous contraction from room temperature to 70 K. We also developed a new control electronics system for the InSb array (see the other paper by Cho et al. in this proceedings). KASINICS is now under the performance test and planned to be in operation at the end of 2006.
Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) is developing the KASI Near Infrared Camera System (KASINICS) which will be installed on the 61 cm telescope at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in Korea. KASINICS is equipped with a ALADDIN III Quadrant (512×512 InSb array, manufactured by Raytheon). For this instrument, we make a new IR array control electronics system. The controller consists of DSP, Bias, Clock, and Video boards which are installed on a VME bus system. The DSP board includes TMS320C6713, FPGA, and 384MB SDRAM. Clock patterns are downloaded from a PC and stored on the FPGA. USB 2.0 is used for the communication with the PC and UART for the serial communication with peripherals. Each of two video boards has 4 video channels. The Bias board provides 16 voltage sources and the Clock board has 15 clock channels. Our goal of readout speed is 10 frames sec<sup>-1</sup>. We have successfully finished operational tests of the controller using a 256×256 ROIC (CRC744). We are now upgrading the system for the ALADDIN III array. We plan to operate KASINICS by the end of 2006.