Waveguide (WG) structures are patterned on polymeric thin films and on three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals
(PhC). Different techniques such as direct laser writing, electron beam lithography (EBL), optical lithography and femto-second
laser writing are used to pattern the WG structures on PPR, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and SU-8
photoresists. All these techniques are found to be successful in writing the WG structures on thin films. Air channel WGs
are formed by EBL and direct laser writing techniques on PMMA and PPR, respectively. The air channel is further
infiltrated with a higher index zinc oxide by sol-gel chemistry for guidance of light by total internal reflection. The
structure written on SU-8 by optical lithography and on PMMA thin film by femto second laser writing resulted in the
ridged WG structures where the guidance is possible by total internal reflection. The WG writing is also successfully
carried out by electron beam lithography and femto second laser writing on PhCs fabricated from PMMA and
polystyrene colloidal particles using inward growing self-assembly method. Unlike the earlier WG structures, the light
guidance is possible due to photonic band gap effect in PhC WG, only for the wavelengths that lie within the stop band of
the PhC. The quality of the written structures is characterized using images from scanning electron microscope, atomic
force microscope and optical microscope. For optical characterization, a diode laser beam is successfully guided through
the WG structure fabricated on PMMA PhC by EBL and on SU-8 thin film by optical lithography method.
Three-dimensionally ordered photonic crystals were grown using self-assembly technique from Rhodamine-B dye doped polystyrene micro-spheres resulting in a stop band at 611 nm overlapping the emission spectrum of the dye. When excited at a wavelength away from the stop band, using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser, the crystal showed angle-dependent suppression of spontaneous emission of the dye in the wavelength range of the photonic stop band and enhancement at the band edge, in reflection and transmission geometries. Spectral narrowing, a sharp threshold and a highly directional emission, all indicative of stimulated emission, were observed from the active photonic crystal matrix.