One of the possible models of the human visual system (HVS) in the computer vision literature has a high resolution fovea and exponentially decreasing resolution periphery. The high resolution fovea is used to extract necessary information in order to solve a vision task and the periphery may be used to detect motion. To obtain the desired information, the fovea is guided by the contents of the scene and other knowledge to position the fovea over areas of interest. These eye movements are called saccades and corrective saccades. A two stage process has been implemented as a mechanism for changing foveation in log polar space. Initially, the open loop stage roughly foveates on the best interest feature and then the closed loop stage is invoked to accurately iteratively converge onto the foveation point. The open loop stage developed for the foveation algorithm is applied to saccadic eye movements and a tracking system. Log polar space is preferred over Cartesian space as: (1) it simultaneously provides high resolution and a wide viewing angle; and (2) feature invariance occurs in the fovea which simplifies the foveation process.
Traditional data compression algorithms for 2D images work using the information theoretic paradigm, attempting to reduce redundant information by as much as possible. However, through the use of a depletion algorithm that takes advantage of characteristics of the human visual system, images can be displayed using only half or a quarter of the original information with no appreciable loss of quality.
In this paper we propose a media-independent knowledge indexing and retrieval system as a basis for an information retrieval system. The representation allows for sharing of low level information bearing objects and at the same time allows for maintaining of user-dependent views. The tools for maintenance and manipulation of concepts focus on the user and user's intentions. The aim of the system is to provide a set of flexible tools and let the user structure the knowledge in his or her own way, instead of attempting to build an all-encompassing common sense, or general knowledge representation.
Multimedia information is now routinely available in the forms of text, pictures, animation and sound. Although text objects are relatively easy to deal with (in terms of information search and retrieval), other information bearing objects (such as sound, images, animation) are more difficult to index. Our research is aimed at developing better ways of representing multimedia objects by using a conceptual representation based on Schank's conceptual dependencies. Moreover, the representation allows for users' individual interpretations to be embedded in the system. This will alleviate the problems associated with traditional semantic networks by allowing for coexistence of multiple views of the same information. The viability of the approach is tested, and the preliminary results reported.
Most current work on video indexing concentrates on queries which operate over high level semantic information which must be entirely composed and entered manually. We propose an indexing system which is based on spatial information about key objects in a scene. These key objects may be detected automatically, with manual supervision, and tracked through a sequence using one of a number of recently developed techniques. This representation is highly compact and allows rapid resolution of queries specified by iconic example. A number of systems have been produced which use 2D string notations to index digital image libraries. Just as 2D strings provide a compact and tractable indexing notation for digital pictures, a sequence of 2D strings might provide an index for a video or image sequence. To improve further upon this we reduce the representation to the 2D string pair representing the initial frame, and a sequence of edits to these strings. This takes advantage of the continuity between frames to further reduce the size of the notation. By representing video sequences using string edits, a notation has been developed which is compact, and allows querying on the spatial relationships of objects to be performed without rebuilding the majority of the scene. Calculating ranks of objects directly from the edit sequence allows matching with minimal calculation, thus greatly reducing search time. This paper presents the edit sequence notation and algorithms for evaluating queries over image sequences. A number of optimizations which represent a considerably saving in search time is demonstrated in the paper.
In this paper we consider two method for automatically determining values for thresholding edge maps. Rather than use statistical methods these methods are based on the figural properties of the edges. Two approaches are taken. We investigate applying an edge evaluation measure based on edge continuity and edge thinness to determine the threshold on edge strength. However, the technique is not valid when applied to edge detector outputs that are one-pixel wide. In this case, we use a measure based on work by Lowe for assessing edges. This measure is based on length and average strength of complete linked edge lists.