<p>Suturing of corneal incisions requires significant skill. We demonstrate a noncontact method that will simplify the bonding process. 5-mm-long penetrating vertical and slanted incisions were made in corneas of eyes, extracted from dead piglets. A fiber-optic laser system was used for laser soldering of the incisions, under close temperature control, using albumin solder. The burst-pressure <italic>P</italic><sub>B</sub> immediately after the soldering was found to be <italic>P</italic><sub>B</sub> ≈ 92 and 875 mmHg, for vertical and slanted incisions, respectively. <italic>P</italic><sub>B</sub> = 875 mmHg is an exceptionally high figure, ≈10 times the clinically acceptable value for sutured incisions. Laser soldering was then performed on penetrating incisions made in the corneas of live healthy piglets, of weight ≈10 Kg. After a healing period, the eyes were extracted, and the corneas were examined by histopathology and by optical coherence tomography. Our method immediately generated watertight and strong bonding without noticeable corneal shape distortion. These results would be beneficial for cataract surgery and for corneal transplantations. The fiber-optic system makes it much easier to bond corneal incisions. In the future, laser soldering could be automated and efficiently used by less experienced surgeons, thereby reducing the workload on the experienced ones.</p>
Melanoma is responsible for most of the fatalities from skin cancer diseases. Yet, there is no reliable method for a noninvasive early detection of skin cancers. We developed a Fiber-optic Evanescent wave Spectroscopy (FEWS) method based on a Fourier Transform Mid-IR (FTIR) spectrometer and on U shaped silver halide (AgClBr) fibers that are highly transparent in the mid-IR. We measured suspicious lesions on patients, before their excision. The central part of the bent fiber touched the lesion and the mid-IR absorption of this area was measured in situ and in real time. As a background, the same measurement was performed on healthy nearby skin. All discomfort to the patient was avoided. The lesions were then examined by conventional means. Histopathology revealed 5 melanoma tumors out of 90 patients and clear and repeating spectral differences between background and lesion are seen in all patients. We continue to accumulate spectral data of melanoma and of other pathologies, for better statistics and for characterization of other types of skin cancer. It is hoped that this non-invasive method for an early detection and diagnosis of skin cancer will replace biopsy and revolutionize this field.