Today the scientific community is facing an increasing complexity of the scientific projects, from both a technological and a management point of view. The reason for this is in the advance of science itself, where new experiments with unprecedented levels of accuracy, precision and coverage (time and spatial) are realised. Astronomy is one of the fields of the physical sciences where a strong interaction between the scientists, the instrument and software developers is necessary to achieve the goals of any Big Science Project. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the largest ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatory of the next decades. To achieve the full potential of the CTA Observatory, the system must be put into place to enable users to operate the telescopes productively. The software will cover all stages of the CTA system, from the preparation of the observing proposals to the final data reduction, and must also fit into the overall system. Scientists, engineers, operators and others will use the system to operate the Observatory, hence they should be involved in the design process from the beginning. We have organised a workgroup and a workflow for the definition of the CTA Top Level Use Cases in the context of the Requirement Management activities of the CTA Observatory. Scientists, instrument and software developers are collaborating and sharing information to provide a common and general understanding of the Observatory from a functional point of view. Scientists that will use the CTA Observatory will provide mainly Science Driven Use Cases, whereas software engineers will subsequently provide more detailed Use Cases, comments and feedbacks. The main purposes are to define observing modes and strategies, and to provide a framework for the flow down of the Use Cases and requirements to check missing requirements and the already developed Use-Case models at CTA sub-system level. Use Cases will also provide the basis for the definition of the Acceptance Test Plan for the validation of the overall CTA system. In this contribution we present the organisation and the workflow of the Top Level Use Cases workgroup.
The ctools are a set of analysis executables that are being developed as a framework for analysing Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) high-level data products. The ctools are inspired by science analysis software available for existing high-energy astronomy instruments, and they follow the modular ftools model developed by the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC). The ctools are based on GammaLib, a C++ library interfaced to Python that provides a framework for an instrument-independent analysis of gamma-ray data. We present the status of the software development, and describe possible workflows that can be implemented for the analysis of gamma-ray data.
MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument developed for ESO (European Southern
Observatory) to be installed on the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in year 2012. The MUSE project is supported by a
European consortium of 7 institutes. After a successful Final Design Review the project is now facing a turning point
which consist in shifting from design to manufacturing, from calculation to test, ... from dream to reality.
At the start, many technical and management challenges were there as well as unknowns. They could all be derived of
the same simple question: How to deal with complexity? The complexity of the instrument, of the work to de done, of
the organization, of the interfaces, of financial and procurement rules, etc.
This particular moment in the project life cycle is the opportunity to look back and evaluate the management methods
implemented during the design phase regarding this original question. What are the lessons learn? What has been
successful? What could have been done differently? Finally, we will look forward and review the main challenges of the
MAIT (Manufacturing Assembly Integration and Test) phase which has just started as well as the associated new
processes and evolutions needed.
Summary: The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field
spectrograph currently in manufacturing, assembly and integration phase. MUSE has a field of 1x1 arcmin<sup>2</sup> sampled at
0.2x0.2 arcsec<sup>2</sup> and is assisted by the VLT ground layer adaptive optics ESO facility using four laser guide stars. The
instrument is a large assembly of 24 identical high performance integral field units, each one composed of an advanced
image slicer, a spectrograph and a 4kx4k detector. In this paper we review the progress of the manufacturing and report
the performance achieved with the first integral field unit.
This poster paper presents the analysis, the design, and a first prototype of the Optimized Slits Positioner Software, a part of the EMIR Observing Program Manager System (EOPMS). EMIR is a multi-slit near-IR spectrograph presently under development for the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC). This tool represents a crucial step for the success and efficiency of multi-object spectroscopy. Complex algorithms have been implemented to help the observer in designing and validating the mask sets, both automatically and interactively, through a user-friendly interface.
The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph under preliminary design study. MUSE has a field of 1x1 arcmin<sup>2</sup> sampled at 0.2x0.2 arcsec<sup>2</sup> and is assisted by the VLT ground layer adaptive optics ESO facility using four laser guide stars. The simultaneous spectral range is 0.465-0.93 μm, at a resolution of R~3000. MUSE couples the discovery potential of a large imaging device to the measuring capabilities of a high-quality spectrograph, while taking advantage of the increased spatial resolution provided by adaptive optics. This makes MUSE a unique and tremendously powerful instrument for discovering and characterizing objects that lie beyond the reach of even the deepest imaging surveys. MUSE has also a high spatial resolution mode with 7.5x7.5 arcsec<sup>2</sup> field of view sampled at 25 milli-arcsec. In this mode MUSE should be able to obtain diffraction limited data-cubes in the 0.6-0.93 μm wavelength range. Although the MUSE design has been optimized for the study of galaxy formation and evolution, it has a wide range of possible applications; e.g. monitoring of outer planets atmosphere, environment of young stellar objects, super massive black holes and active nuclei in nearby galaxies or massive spectroscopic surveys of stellar fields in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies.
We present in this poster paper the Science Simulation aspects of the EMIR Observing Program Manager System (EOPMS). EMIR is a multi-slit near-IR spectrograph presently under development for the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC). We present the scientific functionalities of the EOPMS and its ability to provide the user with the required information during the different observing phases. The exposure time calculator (ETC) and the Image Simulator (IS) will be described, focusing on some unique capabilities with respect to the presently available tools, such as the possibility of 2D spectra simulation and realistic 1D extraction.
The Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph VIMOS is a wide field survey instrument in the process of being commissioned for operations at the ESO-VLT. During the first commissioning period, the instrument has confirmed its excellent performances in its three basic modes of operation: direct imaging, multi-slit spectroscopy, and integral field spectroscopy. VIMOS provides the largest imaging field at the VLT with 224 arcmin<sup>2</sup>. It offers an unprecedented multiplex gain in multi-slit spectroscopy, with on order 800 slits which can be observed simultaneously. The integral field unit has a field up to 54x54 arcsec<sup>2</sup>, with 6400 spectra recorded at once. The overall efficiency of VIMOS combined to the Melipal unit #3 is confirmed to be as computed on the basis of the measured transmission of optical elements. Image quality is confirmed to be excellent, providing images limited by natural seeing in most conditions. High quality slit masks cut by the laser machine coupled to excellent geometric mask to CCD mapping lead to multi-slit spectra of excellent quality. VIMOS is expected to be offered to the ESO community for reguglar observations in early 2003.
The Franco-Italian VIMOS instrument is a VIsible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph with outstanding multiplex capabilities, allowing to take spectra of more than 800 objects simultaneously, or integral field spectroscopy mode in a 54x54 arcsec area. VIMOS is being installed at the Nasmyth focus of the third Unit Telescope of the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Mount Paranal in Chile.
This paper will describe the analysis, the design and the implementation of the VIMOS Instrument Control System, using UML notation. Our Control group followed an Object Oriented software process while keeping in mind the ESO VLT standard control concepts. At ESO VLT a complete software library is available. Rather than applying waterfall lifecycle, ICS project used iterative development, a lifecycle consisting of several iterations. Each iteration consisted in : capture and evaluate the requirements, visual modeling for analysis and design, implementation, test, and deployment. Depending of the project phases, iterations focused more or less on specific activity. The result is an object model (the design model), including use-case realizations. An implementation view and a deployment view complement this product. An extract of VIMOS ICS UML model will be presented and some implementation, integration and test issues will be discussed.
The VIRMOS consortium of French and Italian Institutes is manufacturing 2 wide field imaging multi-object spectrographs for the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, with emphasis on the ability to carry over spectroscopic surveys of large numbers of sources. The Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph, VIMOS, is covering the 0.37 to 1 micron wavelength domain, with a full field of view of 4 by 7 by 8 arcmin<SUP>2</SUP> in imaging and MOS mode. The Near IR Multi-Object Spectrograph, NIRMOS, is covering the 0.9 to 1.8 microns wavelength range, with afield of view 4 by 6 by 8 arcmin<SUP>2</SUP> in MOS mode. The spectral resolution for both instrument scan reach up to R equals 5000 for a 0.5 arcsec wide slit. Multi-slit masks are produced by a dedicated Mask Manufacturing Machine cutting through thin Invar sheets and capable of producing 4 slit masks approximately 300 by 300 mm each with approximately slits 5.7 mm long in less than one hour. Integral field spectroscopy is made possible in VIMOS by switching in the beam specially build masks fed by 6400 fibers coming form a 54 by 54 arcsec<SUP>2</SUP> integral field head with a 80 by 80 array of silica micro-lenses. NIRMOS has a similar IFS unit with a field of 30 by 30 arcmin<SUP>2</SUP>. These instruments are designed to offer very large multiplexing capabilities. In MOS mode, about 1000 objects can be observed simultaneously with VIMOS, with a S/N equals 10 obtained on galaxies with I equals 24 in one hour, and approximately 200 objects can be observed simultaneously with NIRMOS, with a S/N equals 10 obtained don galaxies with J equals 22, H equals 20.6 in 1h at R<SUB>eq</SUB> equals 200. We present here the status of VIMOS, currently under final integration, with expected first light in the summer 2000, together with the final design of NIRMOS presented at the Final Design Review. The VLT-VIRMOS deep redshift survey of more with the final design of NIRMOS presented at the Final Design Review. The VLT-VIRMOS deep redshift survey of more than 150000 galaxies over the redshift range 0 < z < 5 will be undertaken based on 120 guaranteed nights awarded to the project.
EMIR is a near-IR, multi-slit camera-spectrograph under development for the 10m GTC on La Palma. It will deliver up to 45 independent R equals 3500-4000 spectra of sources over a field of view of 6 feet by 3 feet, and allow NIR imaging over a 6 foot by 6 foot FOV, with spatial sampling of 0.175 inch/pixel. The prime science goal of the instrument is to open K-band, wide field multi-object spectroscopy on 10m class telescopes. Science applications range from the study of star-forming galaxies beyond z equals 2, to observations of substellar objects and dust-enshrouded star formation regions. Main technological challenges include the large optics, the mechanical and thermal stability and the need to implement a mask exchange mechanism that does not require warming up the spectrograph. EMIR is begin developed by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrennees, and the University of Durham. Currently in its Preliminary Design phase, EMIR is expected to start science operation in 2004.
KIR is a 1024 by 1024 near-IR camera used with the adaptive optics Bonnette (PUEO) of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The camera houses a 1024 by 1024 HgCdTe and simple refractive optics providing diffraction-limited images with an image scale of 0.035 inch/pixel. First light was obtained in December 1997. The throughput of the camera, from the top of the atmosphere down to the atmosphere down to the detector including PUEO, is 19 percent, 20 percent and 21 percent at J, H and K, respectively. This project is a collaboration between the Universite de Montreal, the Observatoire Midi Pyrenees and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The design and performance of the instrument are presented in this paper.