Conventional precision nanofabrication method, such as electron-beam lithography or focused-ion beam milling, can be used to fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures. These 2D nanostructures, which are now referred as “metasurfaces”, have shown interesting optical properties and are intensely studied by researchers around the world in recent years. There are several phenomena, however, only exist in a 3D nanostructures. It is highly desirable to be able to overcome the obstacles to fabricate 3D nanostructures, which will possible open new applications for Plasmonics.
In this study, nanofabrication of various 3D nanostructures using a method combining Nanospherical-Lens Lithography and Hole Mask Lithograph will be demonstrated. The fabricated nanostructures would cover large-area and fabricated with high-throughput. The fabricated nanostructures can be made from various materials that can be evaporated. Nanostructures made from plasmonic metal, including Au, Ag and Al can be used for plasmonic applications. We will present several 3D nanostructures that can be fabricated using the proposed method. Several applications that take advantage of the fabricated nanostructures will also be introduced.