Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for creating nanoscale oxide lines on various material surfaces. The assembling technique used for overlapping an array of these oxide lines into a uniform oxide layer is analytically investigated and experimentally verified. The experimental data of the oxide lines induced at different scanning speeds are analytically correlated to provide the basic formula for the assembling technique. The superposition principle is then applied for simulating the assembling process to extract the criteria for assembling a uniform layer. Experiments have been conducted to verify the reliability of the uniformity criteria analytically obtained and the feasibility of the assembling technique developed. Indeed, a uniform oxide layer can be precisely assembled by following the uniformity criteria developed.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS hereafter) has emerged as a powerful diagnostic method in many application areas. LIBS operates by a focused laser beam inducing multiple ionization and dissociation of the target molecules. The high energy state at the focal point of the laser beam produces dissociated, excited elements which radiate characteristic emission bands while returning to ground states. These emission wavelengths and intensities can be used to infer the elemental composition of the sample. In air at atmospheric pressure, laser energy density of 10<sup>9</sup> W/cm<sup>2</sup> is typically required to produce laser-induced breakdown, clearly visible as "sparks." There have been numerous fundamental and application studies of LIBS, particularly in recent years due to the increased interest in developing diagnostic methods for complex, toxic chemicals under arbitrary conditions. In this work, we present some results on in-situ LIBS measurements in flame environment. In particular, probably the most important utility of LIBS in flames is for measurements of temperature as will be validated against alternate methods.