In mode-division multiplexing (MDM) systems, transmission quality is restricted by differential mode delay (DMD). We have proposed and developed a spatial-mode exchange technique using volume holograms (VHET) as a leading technology to reduce DMD. VHET can equilibrate the transmission time of each spatial mode which has different transmission speeds in a few mode fiber using a volume hologram. This technology enables low signal distortion and high spectral efficiency, which are indispensable to the long-haul transmission for the MDM system. However, in this technology, modal cross-talks (MXTs), which are caused by inter-page cross-talks in the volume hologram, seriously degrade the performance of VHET. In this study, we proposed a method of combining a volume hologram and a random optical diffuser to reduce the MXTs. In our method, the intensity distribution of the input spatial mode is diffused uniformly by a random optical diffuser. The high exchange performance will be attained because the non-targeted holograms included in the multiplexed holograms do not affect most of the spatial mode. Moreover, our method can be applied to the communication wavelength bands using the dual wavelength method. We confirmed the basic operation of the proposed scheme using a linearly polarized mode group comprising LP0,1, LP1,1, and LP2,1. Compared with the conventional VHET, the simulation results show that the maximum MXTs are significantly suppressed from 0.4 to -15.8 dB.
In this research, we propose a mode selective switch (MSS) using volume holograms. MSS is a device that distributes the mode-division multiplexed (MDM) signal to different output ports for each spatial mode component contained in the signal. Using MSS, the function of reconfigurable optical add / drop multiplexer (ROADM) can be implemented, which can manipulate arbitrary spatial mode signal at any position in the next generation MDM network. In our proposed MSS, the incident signal is separated into spatial mode components by the volume hologram on the input side. The signal destination will be selected for each mode by diffracting independently. The spatial mode components are separated in direction of the plurality of volume holograms on the output side using a spatial light modulator (SLM). In the volume hologram on the output side, the multiple spatial mode components are recombined and emitted once again as an MDM signal. This method has the advantageous that one volume hologram can multiplex or de-multiplex multiple modes, allowing it to cope easily with the increase in the number of modes and ports to be multiplexed. In the experiment, the optical signal lights of three-mode are separated for each spatial mode by the volume hologram on the input side, and the switching to either of the two ports on the output side is successfully performed for each mode using the SLM.