This paper describes an experiment that focuses on disparity changes in emotional scenes of stereoscopic (3D) images, in which an examination of the effects on pleasant and arousal was carried out by adding binocular disparity to 2D images that evoke specific emotions, and applying disparity modification based on the disparity analysis of prominent 3D movies. From the results of the experiment, it was found that pleasant and arousal was increased by expanding 3D space to a certain level. In addition, pleasant gradually decreased and arousal gradually increased by expansion of 3D space above a certain level.
This study contained two experimental examinations of the cognitive activities such as visual attention and memory in viewing stereoscopic (3D) images. For this study, partially converted 3D images were used with binocular parallax added to a specific region of the image. In Experiment 1, change blindness was used as a presented stimulus. The visual attention and impact on memory were investigated by measuring the response time to accomplish the given task. In the change blindness task, an 80 ms blank was intersected between the original and altered images, and the two images were presented alternatingly for 240 ms each. Subjects were asked to temporarily memorize the two switching images and to compare them, visually recognizing the difference between the two. The stimuli for four conditions (2D, 3D, Partially converted 3D, distracted partially converted 3D) were randomly displayed for 20 subjects. The results of Experiment 1 showed that partially converted 3D images tend to attract visual attention and are prone to remain in viewer’s memory in the area where moderate negative parallax has been added.
In order to examine the impact of a dynamic binocular disparity on partially converted 3D images, an evaluation experiment was conducted that applied learning, distraction, and recognition tasks for 33 subjects. The learning task involved memorizing the location of cells in a 5 × 5 matrix pattern using two different colors. Two cells were positioned with alternating colors, and one of the gray cells was moved up, down, left, or right by one cell width. Experimental conditions was set as a partially converted 3D condition in which a gray cell moved diagonally for a certain period of time with a dynamic binocular disparity added, a 3D condition in which binocular disparity was added to all gray cells, and a 2D condition. The correct response rates for recognition of each task after the distraction task were compared. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the correct response rate in the partial 3D condition was significantly higher with the recognition task than in the other conditions. These results showed that partially converted 3D images tended to have a visual attraction and affect viewer’s memory.
Literatures use disparity as a principle measure evaluating discomfort, various artifacts, or movie production styles associated to stereoscopy, yet, statistics used to represent image or frame are often different. The current study examines 20 disparity statistics to find metrics that would best represent subjective stereoscopic sensation. Additionally, effect of disparity distribution pattern within an image is considered: Here, the patterns are categorised either single-peak or multiple-peak from the shape of disparity histogram. In the experiment, 14 stereoscopic images were presented to 15 subjects. Each subject evaluated perceived sense of distance and volume (3D space) through 7 points Likert scale. The result shows that the statistics that correlated significantly to the subjective sensation differed by the disparity compositions, hence, the metrics should be chosen accordingly. For the sense of distance, maximum, range, and the difference between 95th and 5th percentiles were found to be appropriate metrics under the single-peak, and minimum, contrast, and 5th percentile were representative under the multiple-peak. Similarly, for the sense of volume, range was found to be appropriate under the single-peak, but no metrics was found under the multiple-peak. The discrepancy is assumed due to different observation styles under differently composed images. We believe that the current study provides optimal disparity metrics for stereoscopic sensation measurements.
This paper describes a study that focuses on disparity changes in emotional scenes of stereoscopic (3D) images, in which
an examination of the effects on pleasant and arousal was carried out by adding binocular disparity to 2D images that
evoke specific emotions, and applying disparity modification based on the disparity analysis of famous 3D movies.
From the results of the experiment, for pleasant, a significant difference was found only for the main effect of the
emotions. On the other hand, for arousal, there was a trend of increasing the evaluation values in the order 2D condition,
3D condition and 3D condition applied the disparity modification for happiness, surprise, and fear. This suggests the
possibility that binocular disparity and the modification affect arousal.
This special section was made possible by the enthusiasm of the research community in stereoscopic displays and applications, a level of interest that has now sustained the associated SPIE/IS&T Conference into its 25th year. This is a noteworthy achievement for such a young field in which there is now a depth and breadth of research that sustains a vibrant international group of researchers.
The authors have analyzed binocular disparity included in stereoscopic (3D) images from the perspective of producing depth sensation. This paper described the disparity analysis conducted by the authors for well-known 3D movies. Two types of disparity analysis were performed; full-length analysis of four 3D movies and analysis of emotional scenes from them. This paper reports an overview of the authors’ approaches and the results obtained from their analysis.
As 3D technology spreads, 3D imagery is being viewed in more diverse situations. Already, televisions and mobile devices are able to present 3D images, in addition to the cinema. Of these, mobile devices have the unique characteristic of requiring users to view images at close range. The authors conduct an experiment to examine the relationship between visual comfort and an individual observer's near phoria and interpupillary distance. The results show that observers with a higher degree of exophoria tend to prefer stereo images behind the screen because they cause less visual fatigue. On the other hand, observers with little exophoria or esophoria tend to prefer stereo images in front of the screen. Further, the results also show that observers with a greater interpupillary distance tend to prefer stereo images behind the screen. These findings suggest that the ability to adjust the depth of stereo images in advance based on personal phoria or interpupillary distance might help users achieve comfortable stereo viewing on mobile devices.
In this study, for the heritage of industrial modernization we produced a stereoscopic archive of the JVC KENWOOD Yokohama Factory façade, which was dismantled in March 2011, by converting 2D into 3D images. Further, drawn images of the cultural asset were also converted into 3D images in order to evaluate them as part of a stereoscopic archive in terms of how well they express the asset. An experiment was conducted to compare subjects' content impressions under the different image conditions. For the experiment, head mounted display and 42-inch 3D TV were used. 30 students in twenties years of age. with normal binocular vision. participated through questionnaires and interviews to compare the impressions, between the conditions.
2D to stereoscopic 3D (S3D) conversion methods, which is one approach to creating S3D content, are divided into
automatic "on-line" and manual "off-line" methods. Off-line conversion of 2D to S3D is expensive, but offers higher
S3D image quality. Moreover, while off-line conversion provides more flexible control over parallax than stereo filming,
in most cases, 2D images are converted according to the monocular depth cues. The authors propose a new method that
adds uncrossed parallax to entire 2D images and crossed parallax only to specific areas. The authors conducted
subjective and objective evaluations to examine the cognitive characteristics of partial 2D to S3D conversion. This paper
describes the details of the proposed method and the results of the evaluations.
Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) imaging technologies are widely used recently to create content for movies, TV programs,
games, etc. Although S3D content differs from 2D content by the use of binocular parallax to induce depth sensation, the
relationship between depth control and the user experience remains unclear.
In this study, the user experience was subjectively and objectively evaluated in order to determine the effectiveness of
depth control, such as an expansion or reduction or a forward or backward shift in the range of maximum parallactic
angles in the cross and uncross directions (depth bracket). Four types of S3D content were used in the subjective and
objective evaluations. The depth brackets of comparison stimuli were modified in order to enhance the depth sensation
corresponding to the content. Interpretation Based Quality (IBQ) methodology was used for the subjective evaluation
and the heart rate was measured to evaluate the physiological effect. The results of the evaluations suggest the following
(1) Expansion/reduction of the depth bracket affects preference and enhances positive emotions to the S3D content.
(2) Expansion/reduction of the depth bracket produces above-mentioned effects more notable than shifting the
The methods available for delivering stereoscopic (3D) display using glasses can be classified as time-multiplexing and
spatial-multiplexing. With both methods, intrinsic visual artifacts result from the generation of the 3D image pair on a
flat panel display device. In the case of the time-multiplexing method, an observer perceives three artifacts: flicker, the
Mach-Dvorak effect, and a phantom array. These only occur under certain conditions, with flicker appearing in any
conditions, the Mach-Dvorak effect during smooth pursuit eye movements (SPM), and a phantom array during saccadic
eye movements (saccade). With spatial-multiplexing, the artifacts are temporal-parallax (due to the interlaced video
signal), binocular rivalry, and reduced spatial resolution. These artifacts are considered one of the major impediments to
the safety and comfort of 3D display users. In this study, the implications of the artifacts for the safety and comfort are
evaluated by examining the psychological changes they cause through subjective symptoms of fatigue and the depth
sensation. Physiological changes are also measured as objective responses based on analysis of heart and brain activation
by visual artifacts. Further, to understand the characteristics of each artifact and the combined effects of the artifacts,
four experimental conditions are developed and tested. The results show that perception of artifacts differs according to
the visual environment and the display method. Furthermore visual fatigue and the depth sensation are influenced by the
individual characteristics of each artifact. Similarly, heart rate variability and regional cerebral oxygenation changes by
perception of artifacts in conditions.
Crosstalk is a phenomenon in stereoscopy where an image becomes blurry due to leakage of the left image into
the right eye and vice versa, and is considered one of the serious problems impairing stereoscopic experience. The
current study examines mental/cognitive activity under a various levels of crosstalk through heart activity and
forehead blood flow. In the experiment that presented three still natural images and one graphical video with
a various crosstalk levels, heart rate showed a decelerative-accelerative-decelerative pattern for all the stimuli
up to the intolerably severe level. The result suggests changes in mental state in accordance to the crosstalk
level: i.e. orientation response under no perceived crosstalk, active mental elaboration upon noticing crosstalk,
and reduced level of elaboration as crosstalk progressed. The pattern, however, did not always agree amongst
the physiological measures and the crosstalk ratios. This suggests that the mental state under crosstalked image
viewing could be more complex than a simple combination of orientation response and active mental elaboration.
In this study, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the psycho-physiological effects by practical use of monocular
head-mounted display (HMD) in a real-world environment, based on the assumption of consumer-level applications as
viewing video content and receiving navigation information while walking. In the experiment 1, the workload was
examined for different types of presenting stimuli using an HMD (monocular or binocular, see-through or non-see-through).
The experiment 2 focused on the relationship between the real-world environment and the visual information
presented using a monocular HMD. The workload was compared between a case where participants walked while
viewing video content without relation to the real-world environment, and a case where participants walked while
viewing visual information to augment the real-world environment as navigations.
We measured the eye movements of participants who watched a 6-minute movie in stereoscopic and non-stereoscopic
form. We analyzed four shots of the movie. The results indicate that in a 2D movie viewers tended to look at the actors,
as most of the eye movements were clustered there. The significance of the actors started at the beginning of a shot, as
the eyes of the viewer focused almost immediately to them. In S3D movie the eye movement patterns were more widely
distributed to other targets. For example, complex stereoscopic structures and objects nearer than the actor captured the
interest and eye movements of the participants. Also, the tendency to first look at the actors was diminished in the S3D
shots. The results suggests that in a S3D movie there are more eye movements which are directed to wider array of objects
than in a 2D movie.
In this paper, the authors conducted an experiment to evaluate the UX in an actual outdoor environment, assuming the
casual use of monocular HMD to view video content while short walking. In conducting the experiment, eight subjects
were asked to view news videos on a monocular HMD while walking through a large shopping mall. Two types of
monocular HMDs and a hand-held media player were used, and the
psycho-physiological responses of the subjects were
measured before, during, and after the experiment. The VSQ, SSQ and NASA-TLX were used to assess the subjective
workloads and symptoms. The objective indexes were heart rate and stride and a video recording of the environment in
front of the subject's face. The results revealed differences between the two types of monocular HMDs as well as
between the monocular HMDs and other conditions. Differences between the types of monocular HMDs may have been
due to screen vibration during walking, and it was considered as a major factor in the UX in terms of the workload.
Future experiments to be conducted in other locations will have higher cognitive loads in order to study the performance
and the situation awareness to actual and media environments.
Stereoscopic filming is roughly divided into two types: toed-in and parallel camera configurations. Both types have
disadvantages: toed-in cameras cause keystone distortions, and parallel cameras cause image loss by shifting. In addition,
it is difficult for inexperienced creators to understand the optimal camera settings and post-processing procedures, such
as cross points and inter-camera distance, in both types. These factors hinder the creation of stereoscopic images.
Therefore, the authors focused on improving usability in stereoscopic filming, constructed an experimental camera
system, and examined semi-automatic camera configuration function in terms of viewing safety.
High-quality stereoscopic image content must be viewable in a variety of visual environments, from 3-D theaters to 3-D
mobile devices. Stereoscopic effects, however, are affected by screen size, viewing distance, and other parameters. In
this study, the authors focus on the stereoscopic image quality experience of viewing 3-D content on a mobile device in
order to compare it with that of viewing 3-D content on a large screen. The stereoscopic image quality experience was
evaluated using Interpretation Based Quality (IBQ) methodology, which combines existing approaches to image quality
evaluation, such as the paired comparison and interview, and assesses the viewer experience using both quantitative and
qualitative data. Five stereoscopic images were used in the experiment. The results of the experiment suggest that the
discomfort felt while viewing stereoscopic images on a 3-D mobile device arise from not only visual fatigue but also the
effects of the smaller screen size. The study also revealed the types of stereoscopic images that are suitable for viewing
on 3-D mobile devices.
Digital 3D cinema has recently become popular and a number of high-quality 3D films have been produced. However, in
contrast with advances in 3D display technology, it has been pointed out that there is a lack of suitable 3D content and
content creators. Since 3D display methods and viewing environments vary widely, there is expectation that high-quality
content will be multi-purposed. On the other hand, there is increasing interest in the bio-medical effects of image content
of various types and there are moves toward international standardization, so 3D content production needs to take into
consideration safety and conformity with international guidelines. The aim of the authors' research is to contribute to the
production and application of 3D content that is safe and comfortable to watch by developing a scalable 3D conversion technology. In this paper, the authors focus on the process of changing the screen size, examining a conversion algorithm and its effectiveness. The authors evaluated the visual load imposed during the viewing of various 3D content converted by the prototype algorithm as compared with ideal conditions and with content expanded without conversion. Sheffe's paired comparison method was used for evaluation. To examine the effects of screen size reduction on viewers, changes in user impression and experience were elucidated using the IBQ methodology. The results of the evaluation are presented along with a discussion of the effectiveness and potential of the developed scalable 3D conversion algorithm
and future research tasks.
The purpose of the research project reported here is to create more life-like representations of cultural heritage items by
presenting stereoscopic images based on 3D data. In this paper, the authors report on the work of archiving heritage
items in China's National Palace Museum and on the development of an interactive stereoscopic viewer system. A
horizontal stereoscopic representation with interactivity is examined as a method of obtaining a "depth" sensation. The
aim is to represent cultural heritage from a low level close to that of the real environment, such as in a museum, and to
provide tactile sensation. The viewer system consists of a 3D display using Xpol, a touch panel, and a tilt encoder. the
system is controlled by a Windows PC with custom software. The touch panel works for not only general interactions,
such as moving the displayed 3D images, but also offers an unusual type of interaction known as "tracing". The tilt
encoder detects the angle of the display and rotates the 3D images accordingly. These interactions control the coordinates
and parallax of the 3D images in real time to provide an experience similar to holding the real object directly. In
addition, the authors examine the effectiveness of the viewer system through a subjective evaluation.
The authors have developed a virtual reality exposure system that reflects the Japanese culture and environment.
Concretely, the system focuses on the subway environment, which is the environment most patients receiving treatment
for panic disorder at hospitals in Tokyo, Japan tend to avoid. The system is PC based and features realistic video images
and highly interactive functionality. In particular, the system enables instant transformation of the virtual space and
allows situations to be freely customized according to the condition and symptoms expressed by each patient. Positive
results achieved in therapy assessments aimed at patients with panic disorder accompanying agoraphobia indicate the
possibility of indoor treatment. Full utilization of the functionality available requires that the interactive functions be
easily operable. Accordingly, there appears to be a need for usability testing aimed at determining whether or not a
therapist can operate the system naturally while focusing fully on treatment. In this paper, the configuration of the virtual
reality exposure system focusing on the subway environment is outlined. Further, the results of usability tests aimed at
assessing how naturally it can be operated while focusing fully on treatment are described.
Stereoscopic technologies have developed significantly in recent years. These advances require also more understanding
of the experiental dimensions of stereoscopic contents. In this article we describe experiments in which we explore the
experiences that viewers have when they view stereoscopic contents. We used eight different contents that were shown
to the participants in a paired comparison experiment where the task of the participants was to compare the same content
in stereoscopic and non-stereoscopic form. The participants indicated their preference but were also interviewed about
the arguments they used when making the decision. By conducting a qualitative analysis of the interview texts we
categorized the significant experiental factors related to viewing stereoscopic material. Our results indicate that reality-likeness
as well as artificiality were often used as arguments in comparing the stereoscopic materials. Also, there were
more emotional terms in the descriptions of the stereoscopic films, which might indicate that the stereoscopic projection
technique enhances the emotions conveyed by the film material. Finally, the participants indicated that the three-dimensional
material required longer presentation time, as there were more interesting details to see.
This paper describes the trial development of an ergonomic evaluation system for stereoscopic video production. The purpose of the system is to quantify the parallax distribution of stereoscopic images and evaluate their viewing safety and comfort. The authors processed the images to extract the optical flow between the right and left images. The reference values for safety and comfort were obtained from two subjective evaluation and precedent studies. This paper reports the results of the experiments and the development of a prototype evaluation system.
Introduction: An increasing number of surgical procedures are performed in a microsurgical and minimally-invasive fashion. However, the performance of surgery, its possibilities and limitations become difficult to teach. Stereoscopic video has evolved from a complex production process and expensive hardware towards rapid editing of video streams with standard and HDTV resolution which can be displayed on portable equipment. This study evaluates the usefulness of stereoscopic video in teaching undergraduate medical students.
Material and methods: From an earlier study we chose two clips each of three different microsurgical operations (tympanoplasty type III of the ear, endonasal operation of the paranasal sinuses and laser chordectomy for carcinoma of the larynx). This material was added by 23 clips of a cochlear implantation, which was specifically edited for a portable computer with an autostereoscopic display (PC-RD1-3D, SHARP Corp., Japan). The recording and synchronization of left and right image was performed at the University Hospital Aachen. The footage was edited stereoscopically at the Waseda University by means of our original software for non-linear editing of stereoscopic 3-D movies. Then the material was converted into the streaming 3-D video format. The purpose of the conversion was to present the video clips by a file type that does not depend on a television signal such as PAL or NTSC.
25 4th year medical students who participated in the general ENT course at Aachen University Hospital were asked to estimate depth clues within the six video clips plus cochlear implantation clips. Another 25 4th year students who were shown the material monoscopically on a conventional laptop served as control.
Results: All participants noted that the additional depth information helped with understanding the relation of anatomical structures, even though none had hands-on experience with Ear, Nose and Throat operations before or during the course. The monoscopic group generally estimated resection depth to much lesser values than in reality. Although this was the case with some participants in the stereoscopic group, too, the estimation of depth features reflected the enhanced depth impression provided by stereoscopy.
Conclusion: Following first implementation of stereoscopic video teaching, medical students who are inexperienced with ENT surgical procedures are able to reproduce depth information and therefore anatomically complex structures to a greater extent following stereoscopic video teaching. Besides extending video teaching to junior doctors, the next evaluation step will address its effect on the learning curve during the surgical training program.
A common cause of asthenopia is viewing objects from a short distance, as is the case when working at a VDT (Visual Display Terminal). In general, recovery from asthenopia, especially accommodative asthenopia, is aided by looking into the distance. The authors have developed a stereoscopic 3-D display with dynamic optical correction that may reduce asthenopia. The display does this by reducing the discrepancy between accommodation and convergence, thereby presenting images as if they were actually in the distance. The results of visual acuity tests given before and after presenting stereoscopic 3-D images with this display show a tendency towards less asthenopia. In this study, the authors developed a refraction feedback function that makes the viewer's distance vision more effective when viewing stereoscopic 3-D images on the this display. Using this function, refraction is fed back during viewing and the viewer gradually acquires distance vision. The results of the study suggest that stereoscopic 3-D images are more effective than 2-D images for recovery from asthenopia.
The purpose of this study was to consider a practical application of a newly developed stereoscopic 3-D display that solves the problem of discrepancy between accommodation and convergence. The display uses dynamic optical correction to reduce the discrepancy, and can present images as if they are actually remote objects. The authors thought the display may assist in recovery from asthenopia, which is often caused when the eyes focus on a nearby object for a long time, such as in VDT (Visual Display Terminal) work. In general, recovery from asthenopia, and especially accommodative asthenopia, is achieved by focusing on distant objects. In order to verify this hypothesis, the authors performed visual acuity tests using Landolt rings before and after presenting stereoscopic 3-D images, and evaluated the degree of recovery from asthenopia. The experiment led to three main conclusions: (1) Visual acuity rose after viewing stereoscopic 3-D images on the developed display. (2) Recovery from asthenopia was particularly effective for the dominant eye in comparison with the other eye. (3) Interviews with the subjects indicated that the Landolt rings were particularly clear after viewing the stereoscopic 3-D images.
The authors have developed a binocular-type display system that allows digital archives of cultural assets to be viewed in their actual environment. The system is designed for installation in locations where such cultural assets were originally present. The viewer sees buildings and other heritage items as they existed historically by looking through the binoculars. Images of the cultural assets are reproduced by stereoscopic 3D CG in cyberspace, and the images are superimposed on actual images in real-time. This system consists of stereoscopic CCD cameras that capture a stereo view of the landscape and LCDs for presentation to the viewer. Virtual cameras, used to render CG images from digital archives, move in synchrony with the actual cameras, so the relative position of the CG images and the landscape on which they are superimposed is always fixed. The system has manual controls for digital zoom. Furthermore, the transparency of the CG images can be altered by the viewer. As a case study for the effectiveness of this system, the authors chose the Heijyoukyou ruins in Nara, Japan. The authors evaluate the sense of immersion, stereoscopic effect, and usability of the system.
Stereoscopic video teaching can facilitate understanding for current minimally-invasive operative techniques. This project was created to set up a digital stereoscopic teaching environment for training of ENT residents and medical students. We recorded three ENT operative procedures (tympanoplasty, paranasal sinus operation and laser chordectomy) at the University Hospital Aachen. The material was edited stereoscopically at the Waseda University and converted into a streaming 3-D video format, which does not depend on PAL or NTSC signal standards. Video clips were evaluated by 5 ENT specialists and 11 residents in single sessions on an LCD monitor (8) and a CRT monitor (8). Emphasis was laid on depth perception, visual fatigue and time to achieve stereoscopic impression. Qualitative results were recorded on a visual analogue scale, ranging from 1 (excellent) to 5 (bad). The overall impression was rated 2,06 to 3,13 in the LCD group and 2,0 to 2,62 in the CRT group. The depth impression was rated 1,63 to 2,88 (LCD) and 1,63 to 2,25 (CRT). Stereoscopic video teaching was regarded as useful in ENT training by all participants. Further points for evaluation will be the quantification of depth information as well as the information gain in teaching junior colleagues.
Pachinko is a pinball-like game peculiar to Japan, and is one of the most common pastimes around the country. Recently, with the videogame market contracting, various multimedia technologies have been introduced into Pachinko machines. The authors have developed a Pachinko machine incorporating an autostereoscopic 3D display, and evaluated its effect on the visual function. As of April 2003, the new Pachinko machine has been on sale in Japan. The stereoscopic 3D image is displayed using an LCD. Backlighting for the right and left images is separate, and passes through a polarizing filter before reaching the LCD, which is sandwiched with a micro polarizer. The content selected for display was ukiyoe pictures (Japanese traditional woodblocks). The authors intended to reduce visual fatigue by presenting 3D images with depth "behind" the display and switching between 3D and 2D images. For evaluation of the Pachinko machine, a 2D version with identical content was also prepared, and the effects were examined and compared by testing psycho-physiological responses.
This paper describes an examination of a stereoscopic 3-D display system using a correction lens. The purpose of the system is to reduce the accommodation and convergence difference during viewing stereoscopic 3-D images by using simple technique. This correction lens is a mono-focal lens, and added to the polarized filter glasses.
In this study, the authors carried out three experiments in order to examine the appropriate utilization conditions and effects of the correction lens. In experiment 1, the refractive power of correction lens was examined under six conditions in which distances of accommodation and convergence were theoretically equal. In experiment 2, the presenting condition of stereoscopic 3-D images suitable for the correction lens was examined by measurement of refractions during viewing visual target that moved in depth direction. In experiment 3, the effectiveness of the correction lens was examined by using the utilization conditions obtained in experiment 1 and 2.
From the results of the experiments, the following conclusions were drawn.
(1) Correction lenses shift the accommodation distance.
(2) Using a correction lens with the appropriate refractive power and setting the appropriate conditions for presenting stereoscopic 3-D images reduced the difference between accommodation and convergence.
(3) The use of a correction lens affected the subjective symptoms of asthenopia.
We describe the development and evaluation of an electro- optical 3D adapter for recording stereoscopic 3D images with a standard video camcorder. The adapter uses a combination of liquid crystal shutters and a half prism to record right and left images in each field of an NTSC signal. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and usable 3D recording system. We investigated the usability of a conventional -model 3D adapter and examined solutions to the problems we found. This adapter has the following characteristics: 1) The 3D recordings were made using the parallel method. 2) The frame of the adapter does not obstruct light in any part of the images. 3) A correcting lens is used in close-up recordings to equalize the sizes of the right and left images. 4) The vertical disparity of each image is easy to adjust. 5) The base length can be adjusted to between 65mm and 90mm.
This paper describes the development of software for non- linear editing of stereoscopic 3-D movies. The purpose of the software is to simplify the creation of stereoscopic 3-D movies as well as reduce production costs. The software has the following functions: 1) Separate a field-sequential movie file into right and left movie files. 2) Display right and left movie files on time base. 3) Adjust horizontal and vertical disparities. 4) Adjust image size and rotation. 5) Correct inverted fields. 6) Measure the theoretical distance of a presented image. 7) Adjust movies created using the parallel recording method. 8) Combine right and left movie files into a field-sequential 3-D movie file. This paper reports the results of the development of the software and discusses the usefulness of the software for editing stereoscopic 3-D movies.
This paper describes a production of stereoscopic 3D movies of a Spanish monastery for a digital archive. The authors have previously produced and presented an experimental virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist art in 1995. The purpose of this study was to produce a parallel with it, and to examine a simple method for the production.
This paper describes the production and presentation of an experimental virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist art. This medium can provide an easy way to introduce a cultural heritage to people of different cultures. The virtual museum consisted of a multimedia program that included stereoscopic 3D movies of Buddhist statues; binaural 3D sounds of Buddhist ceremonies and the fragrance of incense from the Buddhist temple. The aim was to reproduce both the Buddhist artifacts and atmosphere as realistically as possible.