We experimentally investigate the applicability of the conventional near-field patter (NFP), far-field pattern (FFP) and variable aperture (VA) methods for measuring the effective mode-field diameter (MFD) of the higher-order mode which can be used for evaluating the splice loss accurately. We confirmed that the variation in measured MFD values obtained with FFP and VA methods can be converged by considering the minimum scanning angle and minimum numerical aperture (NA) respectively for both fundamental and higher-order modes. We reveal that the FFP and VA methods provide adequate effective MFD values in the FMF, which can be used for evaluating the splice loss based on the traditional Gaussian fitting model. We also found that the minimum NA in the VA method can be determined empirically as a function of the effective MFD.
The applicability of few-mode fiber (FMF) as a single-multi-single (SMS) sensor is investigated. We examine experimentally the wavelength shift and/or visibility characteristics in an FMF based SMS sensor by changing the external temperature and longitudinal strain individually. We investigate numerically the temperature sensitivity of the fabricated sensor by considering the temperature dependence of the effective refractive index difference. Our results show that an FMF based SMS sensor can be used to measure the relative variation in temperature and strain simultaneously, and whose sensitivity can be tailored easily by designing two LP modes in an FMF.
We propose a PLC-based multi/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX) with a mode conversion function for mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission applications. The PLC-based mode MUX/DEMUX can realize a low insertion loss and a wide working wavelength bandwidth. We designed and demonstrated a two-mode (LP<sub>01</sub> and LP<sub>11</sub> modes) and a three-mode (LP<sub>01</sub>, LP<sub>11</sub>, and LP<sub>21</sub> modes) MUX/DEMUX for use in the C-band.