Recently, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have played significant roles in a variety of fields such as optical communication, dimensional metrology, buildings health monitoring, ultrasonic waves and vibration measurement, petrochemical and other harsh/remote environments owing to their excellent performances like electromagnetic insensitivity, high accuracy and long term stability. In general, FBGs-based sensors are usually decoupled by detecting the variations of FBGs’ central wavelength, wherein, the accuracy and dynamic characteristics of the FBGs-based sensing are directly dependent on the spectral resolutions and response speed of the interrogation method. However, conventional spectral interrogation methods, which directly utilize an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) with low resolutions and response speeds cannot satisfy the requirements of detecting small and dynamic variations of the FBGs’ central wavelength accurately. It is therefore of significance to find a FBGs interrogation method with high resolution and high response speed. In this paper, a high resolution and response speed interrogation method based on reflective-matched Fiber Bragg Gratings scheme is investigated in detail. The nonlinear problem of the reflective-matched FBGs sensing interrogation scheme is solved by establishing and optimizing the mathematical model. A mechanical adjustment to optimize the interrogation method by tuning the central wavelength of the reference FBG is investigated to improve the stability and antitemperature perturbation performance. To satisfy the measuring requirement of the optical and electric signal processing, an acquisition circuit board is well-designed, and experiments on the performance of the interrogation method are carried out. Experimental results indicate that the optical power resolution of the acquisition circuit border is better than 8 pW, and the stability of the interrogation method with the mechanical adjustment can reach 0.06%. Moreover, the linearity of the interrogation method is 3.3% in the measurable range of 60 pm; the influence of temperature is significantly reduced to 9.5%; the wavelength resolution and response speed can achieve 0.34 pm and 500 kHz, respectively.