Coupling of an atom-like emitter to surface plasmons provides a path toward significant optical nonlinearity, which is essential in quantum information processing and quantum networks. A large coupling strength requires nanometer-scale positioning accuracy of the emitter near the surface of the plasmonic structure, which is challenging. We demonstrate the coupling of single localized defects in a tungsten diselenide (WSe2) monolayer self-aligned to the surface plasmon mode of a silver nanowire. The silver nanowire induces a strain gradient on the monolayer at the overlapping area, leading to the formation of localized defect emission sites that are intrinsically close to the surface plasmon. We measured an average coupling efficiency with a lower bound of 26%±11% from the emitter into the plasmonic mode of the silver nanowire. This technique offers a way to achieve efficient coupling between plasmonic structures and localized defects of 2D semiconductors.
Vacuum Rabi oscillation is a damped oscillation in which energy can transfer between an atomic excitation and a photon when an atom is strongly coupled to a photonic cavity. This process is challenging to be coherently controlled due to the fact that interaction between the atom and the electromagnetic resonator needs to be modulated in a quick manner compared to vacuum Rabi frequency. This control has been achieved at microwave frequencies, but has remained challenging to be implemented in the optical domain. Here we demonstrated coherent control of energy transfer in a semiconductor quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule by manipulating the vacuum Rabi oscillation of the system. Instead of using a single photonic crystal cavity, we utilized a photonic crystal molecule consisting two coupled photonic crystal defect cavities to obtain both strong quantum dot-cavity coupling and cavityenhanced AC stark shift. In our system the AC stark shift modulates the coupling interaction between the quantum dot and the cavity by shifting the quantum dot resonance, on timescales (picosecond) shorter than the vacuum Rabi period. We demonstrated the ability to transfer excitation between a quantum dot and cavity, and performed coherent control of light-matter states. Our results provides an ultra-fast approach for probing and controlling light-matter interactions in an integrated nanophotonic device, and could pave the way for gigahertz rate synthesis of arbitrary quantum states of light at optical frequencies.
Generating strong interactions between single quanta of light and matter is central to quantum information science, and a key component of quantum computers and long-distance quantum networks. In quantum information processing, these interactions are required to create elementary logic operations (quantum gates) between stationary matter quantum bits (qubits) and photonic qubits that can be transmitted over long distances. Efficient quantum gates between photonic and matter qubits are a crucial enabler for a broad range of applications that include robust quantum networks, nondestructive quantum measurements, and strong photon-photon interactions. So far these qubit-photon gates have been achieved using single atoms and at microwave frequencies in circuit QED systems. Their implementation with solidstate quantum emitters, however, has remained a difficult challenge. We demonstrate that the qubit state of a photon can be controlled by a single solid-state qubit composed of a quantum dot (QD) strongly coupled to an optical nanocavity. We show that the QD acts as a coherently controllable qubit system that conditionally flips the polarization of a photon reflected from the cavity mode on picosecond timescales. This operation implements a controlled NOT (cNOT) logic gate between the QD and the incident photon, which is a universal quantum operation that can serve as a general light-matter interface for remote entanglements and quantum computations. Our results represent an important step towards an all solid-state implementation of quantum networks and quantum computers, and provide a versatile approach for controlling and probing interactions between a photon and a single quantum emitter on ultra-fast timescales.