Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) with conventional lithography is being thought as one of the potential patterning solution for future generation devices manufacturing. New BCP platform is required to obtain resolution below 10nm half pitch (HP), better roughness, and defect characteristics than PS-b-PMMA. In this study, we will introduce the newly developed Si-containing high chi BCP which can apply perpendicular lamellar orientation with topcoat free, mild thermal annealing under nitrogen process conditions. It will be also shown in experimental results of graphoepitaxy demonstration for L/S multiplication using new high chi BCP.
Directed self-assembly of block copolymers is a promising candidate to address grand challenges towards new generations of low-cost, high-resolution nanopatterning technology. Over the past decade, poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) has been the most popular block copolymer applied in this area. However, further scaling towards pitches below 20 nm is hindered by its relatively low segregation strength between constituent blocks, characterized by a low Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, χ (~ 0.038 at r.t). To reach sub-10 nm feature dimensions, many high- χ block copolymer materials and processes are currently being studied. Here we investigate the DSA of PSb- PMMA with blended ionic liquid (IL) on chemically-patterned substrates via thermal annealing with a free surface. In this materials system, by adding low volume fraction of IL, a substantially higher χ than the pure block copolymer is achieved with manageable change in surface and interfacial properties so that poly(styrene-random-methyl methacrylate) brushes may be used to control substrate wetting behavior, and the blend could be assembled using thermal annealing with a free surface. In other words, PS-b-PMMA/IL may serve as a high- χ drop-in replacement for PS-b-PMMA. In this work, we provide key DSA results to determine if PS-b-PMMA/IL blends would offer a solution for sub-10 nm lithography.
Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) of Block Co-Polymer (BCP) with conventional lithography is being thought as one of the potential patterning solution for future generation devices manufacturing. Many studies have been reported to fabricate the aligned patterns both on grapho and chemoepitaxy for semiconductor application<sup>1, 2</sup>. The hole shrink and multiplication by graphoepitaxy are one of the DSA implementation candidates in terms of relatively realistic process and versatility of chip design. The critical challenges on hole shrink and multiplication by using conventional Poly (styrene<i>-b</i>-methyl methacrylate) (PS<i>-b</i>-PMMA) BCP have been reported such as CD uniformity, placement error3 and defectivity. It is needed to overcome these challenging issues by improving not only whole process but materials. From the material aspect, the surface treatment material for guide structure, and process friendly BCP material are key development items on graphoepitaxy. In this paper, it will be shown in BCP approach about conventional PS-<i>b</i>-PMMA with additives and new casting solvent as PS-<i>b</i>-PMMA extension for CD uniformity and placement error improvement and then it’ll be discussed on what is the key factor and solution from BCP material approach.
As Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) gets closer to production, an increasing interest is devoted to Deep Ultraviolet Out-of-Band (DUV OoB). In fact, EUV sources are known to emit a broad spectrum of wavelengths, among which DUV could potentially contribute to the exposure and degrade imaging performance. In this paper, the DUV/EUV ratio in pre-production (ASML NXE:3100) and alpha (ASML ADT) EUVL scanners is investigated. The OoB is quantified using a previously proposed methodology  based on the use of an aluminum-coated mask capable to provide quantitative in situ information on DUV/EUV ratio without disrupting the tool. The OoB sensitivity of an extensive set of resists is estimated in order to properly guide material development. The impact of OoB on imaging and on Intra-Field Critical Dimension Uniformity (IF CDU) is quantified using resists with large differences in OoB sensitivity. In addition, the impact of mask design on OoB is also investigated. The results indicated that it is in fact possible to reduce the OoB sensitivity of a resist (from 2.5 down to 0.3%) without compromising imaging performance and that tool OoB qualification and monitoring are critical in a production environment.
We have prepared and analyzed neutralization layer material to perform perpendicular morphology of Poly
(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) (PS-<i>b</i>-PMMA) as Block-Co-Polymers (BCPs). Neutralization layer surface
property is optimized by changing hydrophilicity. We have evaluated two types of neutralization layer material. First
one is graft type polymer which makes chemical bonding to substrate. The other is crosslink type polymer which
becomes insoluble to organic solvent by thermal crosslink reaction. We checked neutralization function by changing
film thickness of the neutralization layer under PS-<i>b</i>-PMMA. Regarding to graft type, it was found that when the film thickness of neutralization layer is over 2.3 nm, PS-<i>b</i>-PMMA forms perpendicular morphology on appropriate
neutralization layer. Similarly, regarding to crosslink type, it was found that when the film thickness of neutralization
layer is over 1.9 nm, PS-<i>b</i>-PMMA forms perpendicular morphology on appropriate neutralization layer. Finally, we will show lamella and cylinder patterns changing L<sub>0</sub> of PS-<i>b</i>-PMMA on neutralization layer.
Proc. SPIE. 6151, Emerging Lithographic Technologies X
KEYWORDS: Lithography, Electron beam lithography, Etching, Photomasks, Extreme ultraviolet lithography, Critical dimension metrology, Photoresist processing, Semiconducting wafers, Failure analysis, Back end of line
In this study, we have demonstrated a resist process to fabricate sub 45-nm lines and spaces (L&S) patterns (1:1) by using electron projection lithography (EPL) for a back-end-of-line (BEOL) process for 45-nm technology node. As a starting point we tried to fabricate sub 45-nm L&S (1:1) patterns using a conventional EPL single-layer resist process. There, the resolution of the EPL resist patterns turned out to be limited to 70 nm L&S (1:1) with aspect ratio (AR) of 3.3 which was caused by pattern collapse during the drying step in resist develop process. It has been common knowledge that pattern collapse of this type could be prevented by reducing the surface tension of the rinse-liquid and by decreasing the AR of the resist patterns. Therefore, we first applied a surfactant rinse to a single-layer resist process that could control the pattern collapse by its reduced surface tension. In this experiment, we used the ArF resist instead of the EPL resist because the surfactant that we were able to obtain was the one optimized to the ArF resist materials. From the results of ArF resist experiments, it was guessed that it was difficult for the EPL resist to obtain the L&S patterns with AR of 3.5 or more even if we used the surfactant optimized to the EPL resist. And we found that it was considerably difficult to form 45-nm L&S patterns with AR of 5.1 that was our target. Next, we evaluated a EPL tri-layer resist process to prevent pattern collapse by decreasing the AR of the resist patterns. Because in a tri-layer resist process the purpose of the top-layer resist is to transfer pattern to the middle-layer, a thinner top-layer resist was selected. By using the tri-layer resist process we were able to control the resist pattern collapse and thus were successful in achieving 40-nm L/S (1:1) top-layer resist patterns with AR of 2.3. The process also gave us 40-nm L&S (1:1) patterns after low-k film etching. And moreover, using our tri-layer resist process we were able to fabricate a wiring device with Cu/low-k. Although it was our first attempt, the process resulted in a high yield of 70 % for a 60-nm (1:1) wiring device. As a part of our study we conducted failure analysis of the results of our experiment. We found that the failures were located at the edge of the wafer and might originate in the bottom-layer pattern collapse. We thought that the wiring yield could be increased by control the bottom-layer pattern collapse. These findings indicated that our tri-layer resist process had a high applicability for device fabrication in BEOL.
The Electron Projection Lithography (EPL) has already presented high resolution capabilities and been developed as one of the candidates of post optical lithography. However, much discussion has not been made for resist chemistry, especially on outgassing during exposure, regardless of utilizing high acceleration voltage and applying vacuum system. Moreover, two types of resist system, positive and negative tones, are required for a complete device manufacturing due to its stencil mask structure. Both resist tones with chemically amplified system were experimentally formulated to examine the partial and total pressure changes after exposure. The mass number of outgassing species was also measured in vacuum. The positive tone resist sample indicated many peaks at high mass numbers, in contrary to that negative tone resist sample showed strong peaks at low mass numbers. In addition, it was found that there was a clear trend between the total exposure doses and the total pressure changes in a certain positive-tone resist formulation. The fact may suggest the necessity of high sensitivity resists for EPL from the different standpoint of high throughput in mass production. The dependency of resist base polymer backbone was also examined under an accelerated exposure condition. The resist comprising of methacrylate base polymer indicated high amount of outgassing than that of poly(hydroxystyrene) (PHS) base polymer, with the same resist formulation. The polymer decomposition other than deprotection was considered since the exposure energy in EPL was much greater than that of optical lithography. We developed a new resist adopting the low outgassing concepts such as high sensitivity, non-methacrylate part, and low protecting ratio. The resist presented 56nm 1:2 contact resolution with resist sensitivity of 5.7μC/cm<sup>2</sup>.