High-capacity optical transmitters with reduced size, cost, and power consumption are required to meet growing bandwidth requirements of network systems. A high-modulation-efficiency Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) on an Si platform is a key piece of equipment for these transmitters. Si-MZMs have been widely reported; however their performance is limited by the material properties of Si. To overcome the performance limitations of Si MZMs, we have integrated III-V materials on Si substrate and developed a heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor phase shifter for constructing ultra-high efficient MZM, in which the n-InGaAsP, p-Si, and SiO<sub>2</sub> film are used for constructing the MOS capacitor. The fabricated MZM with the MOS capacitor exhibited a V<sub>π</sub>L of 0.09 Vcm and insertion loss of ~2 dB. 32-Gbps modulation of the MZM was also demonstrated.
A high-efficiency and low-loss Mach-Zehnder modulator on a Si platform is a key component for meeting the demand for high-capacity, low-cost and low-power optical transceivers in future optical fiber links. We report a III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator with an ultrahigh-efficiency phase shifter, which consists of n-type InGaAsP and ptype Si. The main advantage of this structure is a large electron-induced refractive index change and low free-carrier absorption loss of the n-type InGaAsP. The heterogeneously integrated InGaAsP/Si MOS capacitor structure is fabricated by using the oxygen plasma assisted bonding method. The fabricated device shows V<sub>π</sub>L of 0.09 Vcm, a value over three-times smaller than that of the conventional Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator, without an increase in the insertion loss. This clearly indicates that the proposed III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator overcomes the performance limit of the Si Mach-Zehnder modulator.
We developed a design technique for a photonics-electronics convergence system by using an equivalent circuit of optical devices in an electrical circuit simulator. We used the transfer matrix method to calculate the response of an optical device. This method used physical parameters and dimensions of optical devices as calculation parameters to design a device in the electrical circuit simulator. It also used an intermediate frequency to express the wavelength dependence of optical devices. By using both techniques, we simulated bit error rates and eye diagrams of optical and electrical integrated circuits and calculated influences of device structure change and wavelength shift penalty.
Silicon (Si) photonic wire waveguides provide a compact photonic platform on which passive, dynamic, and active photonic devices can be integrated. This paper describe the demonstrations of several kinds of integrated photonic circuits. The platform consists of Si wire, silicon-rich Si dioxide (SiO<i><sub>x</sub></i>) and Si oxinitride (SiON) waveguides for passive devices and a Si rib waveguide with a p-i-n structure and a germanium (Ge) device formed on Si slab for active devices. One of the key technologies for the photonic integration platform is low temperature fabrication because a back-end process with high temperature may damage active and electronic devices. To overcome this problem, we have developed electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition as a low-temperature deposition technique. Another key technology is polarization manipulation for reducing polarization dependence. A polarization diversity circuit is fabricated by applying Si wire and SiON integration. The polarization-dependent loss of the diversity circuit is less than 1 dB. Moreover we have developed several kinds of integrated circuit including passive, dynamic and active devices. Ge photodiodes are monolithically integrated with an SiO<i><sub>x</sub></i>-arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). We have confirmed that the operation speed of the integrated Ge photodiode is over 22 Gbps for all 16 channels. Variable optical attenuators (VOAs) fabricated on the Si p-i-n rib waveguides and an AWG based on the SiO<i><sub>x</sub></i> waveguide are integrated successfully. The total size of 16-ch-AWG-VOAs is 15 8 mm<sup>2</sup>. The device has already been made polarization independent. Furthermore electronic circuits are successfully mounted on the integrated photonic device by using flip-chip bonding.