The latest tendencies in individual diagnostics show high interest in development of optical methods. We have used a dynamic light scattering technique to study the size composition of proteins in blood serum of donors with different diseases. In this work, we focused our attention on demonstration of differences between size compositions of blood serum of donors with different types of diseases. It had been found that the proteins' size composition for sick donors differs in a certain way from the size map of healthy donors. Specifically, the relative concentrations of albumins, globulins and circulating immune complex can be used as a diagnostic parameter as it changes significantly on the disease. This result shows the possibilities of application of dynamic light scattering technique to analyze progress and stage of different diseases, in particular, immune diseases and oncology. We declare that the proposed dynamic light scattering technique can be used in medical practice for early fast and simple diagnostics.
Immune diseases are associated with the activity of cellular and humoral immunity. The humoral (molecular) immunity plays the role in mechanisms of immunological tolerance and pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancerous. The opportunities as well as the challenges facing the humoral immunity analysis are formidable. The study of molecular composition and functionality of humoral immunity is capable to reveal effective strategies for early diagnosis and treatment. The optical techniques were selected for this research due to the noninvasiveness and simplicity of in vivo imaging, allowing real-time observations of the immune activation process. The laser correlation spectroscopic technique allows one to determine sizes of nanoparticles, in particular molecules and molecular agglomerates. In this work, the original scheme of the device based on laser correlation spectroscopic technique is suggested. In the presented work, the molecular compounds were investigated in blood serum. We measured the size distribution of protein molecules in blood of several donors. We observed both single proteins and the protein agglomerates demonstrating normal course of metabolic process in an organism. Then we initiated the immune reactions by the addition of the vaccines to the blood serum. After that, the noticeable aggregation of proteins was observed. To separate specific and nonspecific immune reactions a blood serum with inactivated complement system was also studied. It showed a significantly different outcome. So the laser correlation spectroscopic technique can be successfully used for analysis of the immune activation processes and further diagnostics.
At present, saliva and its properties are being actively studied. Human saliva is a unique biological material that has potential in clinical practice. A detailed analysis of the characteristics and properties of saliva is relevant for diagnostic purposes. In this paper, the properties and characteristics of saliva are studied using optoelectronic methods: dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering and optical microscopy. Mixed saliva from a healthy patient and patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 was used as an object of the study. The dynamics of the behavior of a healthy and patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 is visible according to the results obtained. All three methods confirm hypothesis of structural changes in mixed saliva in the disease of diabetes mellitus type 2.