One of the important challenges in nanoscale manufacturing is the construction of simultaneously patterned three
dimensional structures, materials and devices. Since we live in a three dimensional world, such capabilities are needed to
fully realize the capabilities of nanotechnology. We describe self-assembly processes based on utilizing intrinsic stress
and inducing grain coalescence (extrinsic stress) in thin metal films that can be used to curve or fold lithographically
patterned two dimensional (2D) panels into 3D structures. We discuss the use of intrinsic chromium (Cr) stresses and
extrinsic stresses based on induced grain coalescence in tin (Sn) based structures with varying material composition to
create a variety of lithographically patterned curved and polyhedral structures.