The murine model is a common model for studying developmental diseases. In this study, we compare the performance of the relatively new method of Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) to the well-established technique of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to assess murine embryonic development at three stages, 9.5, 11.5, and 13.5 days post conception. While both methods can provide spatial resolution at the micrometer scale, OPT can provide superior imaging depth compared to OCT. However, OPT requires samples to be fixed, placed in an immobilization media such as agar, and cleared before imaging. Because OCT does not require fixing, it can be used to image embryos in vivo and in utero. In this study, we compare the efficacy of OPT and OCT for imaging murine embryonic development. The data demonstrate the superior capability of OPT for imaging fine structures with high resolution in optically-cleared embryos while only OCT can provide structural and functional imaging of live embryos ex vivo and in utero with micrometer scale resolution.
We explore the phase diagram of a recently introduced gradient driven anisotropic 3D sandpile model of vortex dynamics. Two distinct phases are observed: one is a self-organized critical state characterized by avalanches of vortex motion that obey finite-size scaling and that has a finite critical current density; the other one has vortices that cluster together and occupy only every other lattice site in the X-Y plane. The critical current density is zero in the clustered phase. Detailed results of a finite-size scaling analysis of the avalanches in the self-organized phase is discussed, including critical exponents that differ from the corresponding 2D model.