Our aim is to explore the welding capabilities of a thulium (Tm:YAP) laser in modulated and continuous-wave (CW) modes of operation. The Tm:YAP laser system developed for this study includes a Tm:YAP laser resonator, diode laser driver, water chiller, modulation controller unit, and acquisition/control software. Full-thickness incisions on Wistar rat skin were welded by the Tm:YAP laser system at 100 mW and 5 s in both modulated and CW modes of operation (34.66 W/cm<sup>2</sup>). The skin samples were examined during a 21-day healing period by histology and tensile tests. The results were compared with the samples closed by conventional suture technique. For the laser groups, immediate closure at the surface layers of the incisions was observed. Full closures were observed for both modulated and CW modes of operation at day 4. The tensile forces for both modulated and CW modes of operation were found to be significantly higher than the values found by conventional suture technique. The 1980-nm Tm:YAP laser system operating in both modulated and CW modes maximizes the therapeutic effect while minimizing undesired side effects of laser tissue welding. Hence, it is a potentially important alternative tool to the conventional suturing technique.
Dielectric microspheres are used to resonantly couple light from a half optical fiber coupler to a silicon photodetector. Dielectric microspheres posses high quality factor morphology dependent resonances, i.e., whispering gallery modes. The observed resonances have a channel spacing of 0.14 nm and a linewidth of 0.06 nm. These resonances provide the necessary narrow linewidths, that are needed for high resolution optical spectroscopy applications. Optical communication and biological detection applications of this optoelectronic system are studied experimentally and theoretically.
Crystalline silicon being ubiquitous throughout the microelectronics industry has an indirect bandgap, and therefore is incapable of light emission. However, strong room temperature visible and near-IR luminescence from non-crystalline silicon, e.g., amorphous silicon, porous silicon, and black silicon, has been observed. These silicon based materials are morphologically similar to each other, and have similar luminescence properties. We have studied the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence from these non-crystalline silicons to fully characterize and optimize these materials in the pursuit of obtaining novel optoelectronic devices.
Optical microsphere resonators have been recently utilized in quantum optics, laser science, spectroscopy, and optoelectronics and attracted increasing interest due to their unique optical properties. Microspheres possess high quality factor (Q-factor) optical morphology dependent resonances, and have relatively small volumes. High-Q morphology dependent resonances are very sensitive to the refractive index change and microsphere uniformity. These tiny optical cavities, whose diameters may vary from a few to several hundred micrometers, have resonances with reported Q-factors as large as 3x109. Due to their sensitivity, morphology dependent resonances of microspheres are also considered for biosensor applications. Binding of a protein or other biomolecules can be monitored by observing the wavelength shift of morphology dependent resonances. A biosensor, based on this optical phenomenon, can even detect a single molecule, depending on the quality of the system design. In this work, elastic scattering spectra from the microspheres of different materials are experimentally obtained and morphology dependent resonances are observed. Preliminary results of unspecific binding of biomolecules onto the microspheres are presented. Furthermore, the morphology dependent resonances of the microspheres for biosensor applications are analyzed theoretically both for proteins such as bovine serum albumin.
Morphology-dependent resonances of microspheres can provide the necessary optical feedback for applications in spectroscopy, laser science, and optical communications. The elastic scattering of focused light from dielectric microspheres is understood by the localization principle and the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory. We excited the morphology-dependent resonances of glass microspheres by a tunable distributed-feedback laser and detected the elastically scattered signal. Efficient coupling to morphology-dependent resonances is achieved using an optical fiber half coupler. Resonance peaks in the elastic scattering spectra and associated dips in the transmission spectra are observed experimentally. Simulation results of elastic scattering spectra of glass microspheres in the C-band are presented.
Morphology dependent resonances of dielectric microspheres are used for polarization insensitive optical channel dropping from an optical fiber half coupler to a silicon photodetector in the M-band. The dropped channels are observed in the elastic scattering and the transmission spectra. The highest quality factor morphology dependent resonances have a repetitive channel separation of 0.14 nm and a linewidth of 0.06 nm. The filter drops approximately 10% (0.5 dB) of the power at the resonance wavelength. The power detected by the photodiode is estimated to be approximately 3.5% of the power in the fiber.
Dielectric microspheres, with their morphology dependent resonances, are used to resonantly couple light from half optical fiber couplers. The dropped channels are observed in the elastic scattering and the transmission spectra. The excitation of the microsphere with the nearly Gaussian beam in the half optical fiber coupler provides spatially and spectrally selective, and enhanced light coupling. The filter drops approximately 10% (0.5 dB) of the power at the resonance wavelength. A tunable single mode distributed feedback diode laser is used as the infrared excitation source. The generalized Lorenz-Mie
theory, describing the illumination of the microsphere with a Gaussian beam, is used to interpret the experimental results.
Morphology dependent resonances of dielectric microspheres are used for polarization insensitive optical channel dropping from an optical fiber half coupler to a silicon photodetector in the M-band. The dropped channels are observed in the elastic scattering and the transmission spectra. The highest quality factor morphology dependent resonances have a repetitive channel separation of 0.14 nm and a linewidth of 0.06 nm. The filter drops approximately 10% (0.5 dB) of
the power at the resonance wavelength. The power detected by the photodiode is estimated to be approximately 3.5% of the power in the fiber.