Two vibration measurement methods with femtosecond pulsed laser based on the optical cross-correlation technique are presented independently in this paper. The balanced optical cross-correlation technique can reflect the time jitter between the reference pluses and measurement pluses by detecting second harmonic signals using type II phase-matched nonlinear crystal and balanced amplified photo-detectors. In the first method, with the purpose of attaining the vibration displacement, the time difference of the reference pulses relative to the measurement pluses can be measured using single femtosecond pulsed laser. In the second method, there are a couple of femtosecond pulsed lasers with high pulse repetition frequency. Vibration displacement associated with cavity length can be calculated by means of precisely measuring the pulse repetition frequency. The results show that the range of measurement attains ±150μm for a 500fs pulse. These methods will be suited for vibration displacement measurement, including laboratory use, field testing and industrial application.
The background and principle of zero-crossing point locking technology are introduced in this paper. An experimental locking system is designed to realize fast locking of zero-crossing point, and the results of locking is studied by analyzing zero-crossing point locking signal. In the distance measurement of femtosecond pulsed laser, a crystal produces the balanced cross-correlation (BCC) signal, which signifies the time offset of the target pulses with respect to the reference pulses. By continuously pulling this signal to zero-crossing point, the locking system provides a closed loop control process, which ensures the stability of the zero-crossing point and the precision of measurement. This locking system is mainly made up by five sections. As a core section of system, P-I circuit can optimize the locking state by changing parameters. A frequency counter referenced to the rubidium atomic clock is used to measure the pulse repetition rate with a stability of 10-12 in the sampling rate of 10s in 24 hours, which is helpful to analyze the measurement precision. In the experiment, the result of zero-crossing point lock can reach to 15mV, in other words, the range of amplitude variation can be reduced to less than 15mV after locking. With the repetition rate data evaluated, the jitter of the pulse repetition rate is within 25Hz in the sampling time of 15s after locking the zero-crossing point. It is proved that the locking system designed has a high practical value in the distance and vibration measurement of femtosecond pulsed laser.
The absolute distance measurement was experimentally demonstrated by using the fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb in air. The technique is based on the measurement of cross correlation between reference and measurement optical pulses. This method can achieve accuracy better than the commercial laser interferometer. It is attained sub-micrometer resolution in large scale measurement by using the fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb. It will be benefit for future laser lidar and satellite formation flying mission.
Flattop annular beam has been predicted with good character over an increasing application, but the generating of flattop annular beam is rarely mentioned by academic article. In our paper, an optical refractive system, which is designed to achieve flattop annular beam, are proposed. The cone prism is commonly used to get an annular beam, however, the beam intensity distribution is non-uniform. In our design, an additional aspheric lens is placed in front of the cone prism along the optical axis. The lens parameters are theoretically analyzed and well optimized to homogenize the optical field. Furthermore, to lower the requirement of machining accuracy, a pair of aspheric lenses is also designed, which can be used independently to generate flattop annular beam. It combines the function of cone prism and aspheric lens, so as to replace them both. The performance of the implementations has been demonstrated in detail. Simulation result shows that the proposed design is effective and feasible. It is hope that our work would be helpful in related fields. Flattop annular beam, Aspheric lens, Cone prism
The new technique known as “The femtosecond frequency comb technology” has dramatic impact on the diverse fields of precision measurement and nonlinear optical physics. In order to acquire high-precision and high-stability femtosecond comb, it’s necessary to stabilize the repetition rate fRep and the offset frequency f0. This article presents the details of stabilizing and controlling the comb parameter fRep and finally phase lock the repetition rate of femtosecond laser to a radio frequency reference, derived from an atomic clock. In practice, the narrower the bandwidth of lock system (close-loop system), the higher stability we can achieve, but it becomes easier to be unlocked for external disturb. We adopt a method in servo unit to avoid this problem in this paper. The control parameters P and I can be adjusted and optimized more flexibly. The lock steps depend on the special servo system make it easier to find the right parameters and the lock becomes more convenient and quickly. With this idea, the locked time of repetition rate can be as long as the mode-locking time of the laser. The stability of laser can be evaluated by allan deviation. In this research, the contrast of stability of fRep between the locked laser and the unlocked is given. The new lock system is proved reasonable.
The effect of air dispersion on the femtosecond pulsed width is studied in this paper. We present the pulsed width variation with central wavelength, grating period and distance, respectively. Then the air dispersion compensation scheme based on the high-density transmissive grating is put forward to compress the pulsed width of femtosecond laser. The diffracted efficiencies variation with the groove depth and the grating period under the condition of TE and TM polarization state are also given through simulation. The scheme has advantages of compact volume and convenient operation.