The complex refractive index dispersion (CRID), which contains the information on the refractive index dispersion and extinction coefficient spectra, is an important optical parameter of biotissue. However, it is hard to perform the CRID measurement on biotissues due to their high scattering property. Continuous CRID measurement based on internal reflection (CCRIDM-IR) is introduced. By using a lab-made apparatus, internal reflectance spectra of biotissue samples at multiple incident angles were detected, from which the continuous CRIDs were calculated based on the Fresnel formula. Results showed that in 400- to 750-nm range, hemoglobin solution has complicated dispersion and extinction coefficient spectra, while other biotissues have normal dispersion properties, and their extinction coefficients do not vary much with different wavelengths. The normal dispersion can be accurately described by several coefficients of dispersion equations (Cauchy equation, Cornu equation, and Conrady equation). To our knowledge, this is the first time that the continuous CRID of scattering biotissue over a continuous spectral region is measured, and we hereby have proven that CCRIDM-IR is a good method for continuous CRID research of biotissue.
The physical changes of tissue are complicated to evaluate during optical clearing (OC) treatment. Monitoring the changes of optical parameters, including the complex refractive index (CRI), helps people better understand the OC process. From the imaginary part of CRI, we can deduce the extinction coefficient of tissue. Based on the total internal reflection method, the time-dependent CRI of porcine muscle during natural dehydration is well determined. Results show that the real RI increases continuously with the increase of dehydration time, whereas the extinction coefficient initially increases and then decreases. Finally, the extinction coefficient becomes much smaller than the initial value, which demonstrates that better tissue optical clarity is obtained. The change tendency of the extinction coefficient of tissue is used to qualitatively explain the dynamic change of transmittance of a natural dehydrated tissue. Consequently, CRI, especially its imaginary part, is a very useful optical parameter by which to evaluate the OC effect.
We adapt the improved scanning focused refractive-index microscopy (SFRIM) technique to the quantitative study of
biological tissues. Delicate refractive index (RI) imaging of a porcine muscle tissue is obtained in a reflection mode.
Some modifications are made to the SFRIM for better two dimension (2-D) observation of the tissues. The RI accuracy
is 0.002. The central spatial resolution of SFRIM achieves 1μm, smaller than the size of the focal spot. Our method is
free from signal distortion. The experimental result demonstrates that SFRIM is a potential technique in a wide field of