Remote-sensing technology designed to exploit disturbed earth signatures has become extremely useful in the detection of disturbed soil in military areas of operation. Soil reflectance can be exploited for this purpose and is dependent on atmospheric conditions. An understanding of the in situ soil background is vital to any type of change detection. Researchers from the Engineering Research and Development Center (ERDC) conducted OCONUS soil spectral measurements at ten sites in Afghanistan from July to November, 2011. Sampling sites were chosen on the basis of geomorphic setting, surface-soil characteristics, and field-expedient conditions. Goniometric spectral measurements at these sites have provided high quality bi-directional reflectance data, and their analyses are presented in the context of threat recognition and discrimination. These data can also provide the basis for BDRF model validation. Most spectral data were acquired under ambient solar lighting, but other data were collected at night and under artificial illumination conditions. Bidirectional measurements of soil reflectance in the VIS/NIR and SWIR were taken using the University of Lethbridge Goniometer System (ULGS) at dawn, mid-day, dusk and after sunset with a light. Soil surface roughness and reflectance varied, depending on the presence of desert varnish and desert pavement at some sites. Sun angle and dust and smoke in the atmosphere impacted soil reflectance and noise in the SWIR part of the light spectrum, in particular. The presence of minerals such as calcium carbonate, gypsum, and oxidized iron in the subsurface directly impacted reflectance measurements in disturbed soil.