The development of a technology that allows for analyzing microscopic spatial distribution and dynamics of small gaseous molecules such as inhalational anesthetics and odors would advance our understanding of its biological activities in living cells. However, direct observation of such small molecules by optical microscopy is still challenging. We propose a new pump–probe stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy method for studying the localization, transport and metabolism of gaseous molecules in a living organism in a label-free manner. A technical challenge is how to detect the Raman signal of a small amount of drug molecules that is typically overwhelmed by unwanted nonlinear background, including nonresonant background and coherent Raman scattering of surrounding cells and tissues. In particular, the latter Raman-induced background is essentially inevitable in most standard coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and SRS systems. We show that these background issues can be overcome by introducing a new pump–probe, time-resolved SRS detection approach coupled with a pair of spectrally-focused, asymmetrically shaped probe pulses (T. Ito et al. APL Photonics (2018)). In the pump–probe scheme, a long-lived vibration of the targeted molecules can be efficiently probed after short-lived vibrations of other background molecules such as water and fatty acids become silent. This unique lifetime-selective signal detection provides a significantly enhanced vibrational signal contrast. As a proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrate that the passive transport of inhalational anesthetic molecules from aqueous solution to adipose cells can be monitored by time-lapse SRS imaging.
Copying speed is an important characteristic for optical read-only memory (ROM) replication systems. The copying
speed of holographic ROM replication is, however, limited by small energy efficiency of the optical system due to the
small diffraction efficiency of multiplexed holograms. In this paper we propose new holographic ROM replication
systems with a photorefractive amplifier, and analyze the speed gain performance. We improve energy efficiency
significantly and speed up replication by amplifying weak diffraction signal beams using photorefractive wave mixing.
Our new theory and numerical calculations revealed that achievable speed gain can be evaluated from only a single
dimensionless parameter that is the product of the three as follows: (i) the pump beam intensity ratio in the amplifier, (ii)
the ratio of the photopolymer and photorefractive sensitivities, and (iii) the dynamic range per hologram of the copy
medium. In current holographic recording systems, a practical copying speed gain of more than 10 is achievable with
currently available photorefractive materials.
We propose a new optical intersatellite communications system with a phase conjugate mirror (PCM) in formation flying (FF). In conventional optical intersatellite communications, high-accurate target acquisition and tracking are required for both the transmitter and the receiver. In our system with a PCM, when a control beam from the receiver is captured by a PCM in the transmitter, the signal beam from the transmitter introduced back to the receiver as its phase-conjugate replica. Thus, it is not necessary for the transmitter to target the receiver. Another advantage of using a PCM is that we can utilize spatial filtering. Background noise by sunlight with the laser wavelength can also be efficiently suppressed by a spatial phase modulation/demodulation and filtering processes using phase compensation by the PCM, which leads to the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence provides high data transmission rates in the system. In order to efficiently filter out the background noise, a large beam propagation angle is required in spatial filtering. We spatially modulate the background noise by the diffuser and reduce the beam diameter by the expansion/downscale optical system as a method to enlarge the beam propagation angle. In this paper, we show that our system can separate the noise from the signal by using the expansion/downscale optical system even under spatial phase modulation. In the analysis, the SNR is 32.6[dB] at <i>scale</i>=8.0×10<sup>4</sup>, when a spatial phase modulation by the diffuser is <i>θ</i>=1.5×10<sup>-5</sup>[rad].
Volume holographic recording is a promising solution for next- generation optical disc storage that has a high capacity more than 1 TB. This huge capacity is achieved by superimposing many holograms, each of which has millions of bits, at the same recording spot. We proposed a new technique, Spatial Spread Spectrum (SSS) multiplex recording. Unlike conventional multiplex holography based on Bragg effect of thick holograms, our technique utilizes spatial phase modulation and demodulation of the signal beam itself with a random diffuser to address the multiplexed page data. SSS multiplexing is additionally combined with other multiplexing methods, and provides further improvement of the total capacity of holographic storage. In this paper we experimentally verify the basic recording and readout feasibility, and investigate the shift selectivity and the aligning margin of the SSS holographic recording that are an important factor to determine the tolerance against vibration. It is shown that a clear 2-dimensional image is successfully reconstructed from the hologram even in the case the central part of the diffused signal beam is blocked in recording, and that a sharp shift selectivity about 5 microns was obtained by a diffuser with a diffusion angle of 15 degree, and the aligning margin for a sufficient SNR was approximately 1 micron.
The purpose of this study is to apply a free-space optical interconnection to a reconfigurable board-to-board connection where the wiring patterns connecting boards are optically formed without electrical-optical conversion. We regard a photorefractive bi-directional connection module (PBCM) based on a mutually pumped phase conjugate mirror as a key device to construct such a connection network and employ PBCMs at input/output interfaces of each board. Although optical behaviors of PBCM are influenced by the exposure conditions, we especially focus on the diameter of beams illuminating photorefractive media placed inside PBCM so as to find some geometrical restrictions in a design of networking system. Through numerical analyses, we show a sample configuration of PBCM for the board-to-board interconnection and present a conceptual design of input/output interface.
We propose a fault-tolerant holographic memory (FTHM) composed of a pair of photorefractive crystals. This memory offers not only non-destructive readout but also data restoring function by only pure optical operations without any electrical controls. In writing process, the same holographic data are simultaneously recorded as index gratings to the crystals laid out in series. In reading process, a reading beam is diffracted by the index gratings in each crystal. Here, some of the diffraction beams are detected as an output beam, and the others are used as a feedback beam. The hologram in each crystal is continuously refreshed by the feedback beam from the other crystal since the feedback beam has the same information as the original holographic data. When the data refreshing effect by the feedback beams sufficiently exceeds the erasure effect by the exposure of the reading beam, the stored data are always maintained. Furthermore, even if a certain fault such as vibration and stray beam incidence happens, the lost data in one crystal are all-optically restored as long as the corresponding holographic data remain in the other crystal. The experiment with a two-dimensional image is carried out for the purpose of checking the data restoring function in FTHM. The two-dimensional image divided in quarters is recorded as into a pair of 45°-cut BaTiO3 crystals, and the original holographic data is successfully restored by the refreshing effect in the case that a quarter of the image in the one crystal is partially lost.