This article reports the progress in the beamlines at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser (SACLA). The beamline optical and diagnostics systems have been upgraded to further accelerate the scientific applications of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). End-station instruments have also been developed to provide user-friendly experimental platforms which allow efficient data collection. Along with the upgrades of beamlines and experimental stations, we have established reliable and efficient procedures of the beamline operation.
X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) that utilize intense and ultra-short pulse X-rays may damage optical elements. We investigated the damage fluence thresholds of optical materials by using an XFEL focusing beam that had a power density sufficient to induce ablation phenomena. The 1 μm focusing beams with 5.5 keV and/or 10 keV photon energies were produced at the XFEL facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser). Test samples were irradiated with the focusing beams under normal and/or grazing incidence conditions. The samples were uncoated Si, synthetic silica glass (SiO2), and metal (Rh, Pt)-coated substrates, which are often used as X-ray mirror materials.
X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) with intense and ultra-short pulse X-rays possibly induce damage to optical elements.
We investigated the damage thresholds of optical materials by using focusing XFEL beams with sufficient power density
for studying ablation phenomena. 1-μm focusing beams with 10 keV photon energy were produced at the XFEL facility
SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser). The focusing beams irradiated samples of rhodium-coated
substrate, which is used in X-ray mirror optics, under grazing incident condition.