Ion implantation (I/I) and annealing techniques to enable high carrier doping into selected regions are one of important research fields for realization of GaN power devices. However, particularly difficult research challenges are present in Mg-I/I into GaN as p-type doping technique. First problem is related to nitrogen vacancies (VN), crystal defects introduced by Mg-I/I .  Second issue is connected to degeneration of GaN surface by pyrolysis reaction during high-temperature annealing process. We examined Mg/N co-implantation into GaN as p-doping in order to compensate of VN defects. Research on ultra-high pressure thermal activation process to maintain equilibrium conditions at high temperature was conducted to avoid degradation of GaN surface.
We prepared Mg/N co-implanted GaN-on-GaN samples with 300-nm-deep Mg-box-profile of 1E19 cm-3 and with N-box-profile of various concentrations in the range 0 ~ 1E20 cm-3. The samples were annealed without a protection cap layer at temperature between 1300 °C and 1480 °C under 1 GPa in N2 atmosphere. Samples capped with sputter-AlN were treated by conventional lamp annealing at 1300 °C for a comparison purpose.
We obtained the dominant Green Luminescence (GL) emission at 2.3 eV and the recessive Donor Acceptor Pair (DAP) emission at 3.2 eV from a low-temperature cathodoluminescence (LT-CL) spectra in Mg-I/I samples without N co-implantation. This is in good agreement with results published before. In addition to this, we found that the Mg/N co-implantation, for optimized N-ion dose, suppresses the GL intensity while maintaining the DAP intensity. Furthermore, in the ultra-high pressure thermal activation process, the DAP intensity markedly increases with anneal temperature and GL intensity suppression is also visible. These results strongly suggest that the origin of GL is related to VN, and the VN defect compensation occurs by N co-implantation. We also compare the AFM images of GaN surface roughness. The ultra-high pressure annealed surfaces were as smooth (RMS = 0.2~0.3 nm) as the as-implanted samples (0.3 nm), whereas surface treated with conventional lamp was rough (1.9 nm).
We can, therefore, conclude that Mg/N co-implantation and ultra-high pressure thermal activation process allows activation of the Mg acceptor and recovery of p-GaN crystal quality. Such treatment results in VN defect compensation and a smooth surface of the annealed sample.
This work was supported by MEXT “Program for research and development of next-generation semiconductor to realize energy-saving society.”
 A. Uedono et al., Phys. Status Solidi B 252, No. 12 (2015)
 K. Kojima et al., Appl. Phys. Express 10, 061002 (2017).