Rapid advances in computer and display technologies have made it possible to present high quality virtual reality (VR)
environment. To use such virtual environments effectively, research should be performed into how users perceive and
react to virtual environment in view of particular human factors. We created a VR simulation of sea fish for science
education, and we conducted an experiment to examine how observers perceive the size and depth of an object within
their reach and evaluated their visual fatigue. We chose a multi-projection system for presenting the educational VR
simulation, because this system can provide actual-size objects and produce stereo images located close to the observer.
The results of the experiment show that estimation of size and depth was relatively accurate when subjects used physical
actions to assess them. Presenting images within the observer’s reach is suggested to be useful for education in VR
environment. Evaluation of visual fatigue shows that the level of symptoms from viewing stereo images with a large
disparity in VR environment was low in a short time.
This paper describes the trial development of an ergonomic evaluation system for stereoscopic video production. The purpose of the system is to quantify the parallax distribution of stereoscopic images and evaluate their viewing safety and comfort. The authors processed the images to extract the optical flow between the right and left images. The reference values for safety and comfort were obtained from two subjective evaluation and precedent studies. This paper reports the results of the experiments and the development of a prototype evaluation system.
This paper describes an examination of a stereoscopic 3-D display system using a correction lens. The purpose of the system is to reduce the accommodation and convergence difference during viewing stereoscopic 3-D images by using simple technique. This correction lens is a mono-focal lens, and added to the polarized filter glasses.
In this study, the authors carried out three experiments in order to examine the appropriate utilization conditions and effects of the correction lens. In experiment 1, the refractive power of correction lens was examined under six conditions in which distances of accommodation and convergence were theoretically equal. In experiment 2, the presenting condition of stereoscopic 3-D images suitable for the correction lens was examined by measurement of refractions during viewing visual target that moved in depth direction. In experiment 3, the effectiveness of the correction lens was examined by using the utilization conditions obtained in experiment 1 and 2.
From the results of the experiments, the following conclusions were drawn.
(1) Correction lenses shift the accommodation distance.
(2) Using a correction lens with the appropriate refractive power and setting the appropriate conditions for presenting stereoscopic 3-D images reduced the difference between accommodation and convergence.
(3) The use of a correction lens affected the subjective symptoms of asthenopia.
We describe the development and evaluation of an electro- optical 3D adapter for recording stereoscopic 3D images with a standard video camcorder. The adapter uses a combination of liquid crystal shutters and a half prism to record right and left images in each field of an NTSC signal. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and usable 3D recording system. We investigated the usability of a conventional -model 3D adapter and examined solutions to the problems we found. This adapter has the following characteristics: 1) The 3D recordings were made using the parallel method. 2) The frame of the adapter does not obstruct light in any part of the images. 3) A correcting lens is used in close-up recordings to equalize the sizes of the right and left images. 4) The vertical disparity of each image is easy to adjust. 5) The base length can be adjusted to between 65mm and 90mm.
This paper describes the development of software for non- linear editing of stereoscopic 3-D movies. The purpose of the software is to simplify the creation of stereoscopic 3-D movies as well as reduce production costs. The software has the following functions: 1) Separate a field-sequential movie file into right and left movie files. 2) Display right and left movie files on time base. 3) Adjust horizontal and vertical disparities. 4) Adjust image size and rotation. 5) Correct inverted fields. 6) Measure the theoretical distance of a presented image. 7) Adjust movies created using the parallel recording method. 8) Combine right and left movie files into a field-sequential 3-D movie file. This paper reports the results of the development of the software and discusses the usefulness of the software for editing stereoscopic 3-D movies.
We are developing a multiple-angle 3D-video system that will allow an audience to enjoy a concert in real time at a distant location by simultaneously shooting multiple stereoscopic images from different angles and transmitting them through a high-speed network. At the receiving side, a decoder restores the original image signals from the received data, and different video images are shown on multiple stereoscopic displays. As a result, the audience can enjoy multiple images of a concert at the same time. The purpose of this system is to give a remote audience the opportunity to enjoy a live concert as though they were at the concert site. This paper examines the technical requirements for the camera arrangement and the transmission rate needed to transmit images of a musical performance with this system. We have built an experimental system with four stereo cameras, and have experimentally transmitted musical performance images to test the system performance. In this paper, we also propose a method for transmitting multiple camera images more efficiently.
This paper describes the production and presentation of an experimental virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist art. This medium can provide an easy way to introduce a cultural heritage to people of different cultures. The virtual museum consisted of a multimedia program that included stereoscopic 3D movies of Buddhist statues; binaural 3D sounds of Buddhist ceremonies and the fragrance of incense from the Buddhist temple. The aim was to reproduce both the Buddhist artifacts and atmosphere as realistically as possible.
Three dimensional displays using binocular disparity techniques are widely used. Binocular stereoscopic images can produce
a mismatch of distance between plane of focus (accommodation) and plane of fixation (convergence) of the observe?s eyes.
The viewing distance, i.e. plane of required focus, is generally greater when looking at a large screen than when look at a
small display. In this study the fusional ranges of the binocular three dimensional image are compared when viewing a large
screen (75inch,projection type TV display) at a distance of 350cm and when observing a small display (2linch CRT) at a
distance of 100cm. We found that the fusional range was more extended on the larger screen than the smaller display.
Accommodative responses were measured when looking at the 3D image. Accommodation does not remain in the plane of the
display but changes to the stereoscopic distance of the 3D image fixated by the observer. The changes required when using a
longer viewing distance were smaller than those measured with an a short viewing distance. These results suggest the longer
viewing distance reduces an unnatural feeling of viewing 3D images due to the mismatch of distance between the planes of
accommodation and convergence.
Accommodation response time was measured after looking at stereoscopic 3D images. Far-to-near response time was
longer than before viewing these images. The results showed that the viewing stereoscopic 3D images provided the observer's
visual system with different type of stimuli from these experienced in normal viewing.