Chemical-transport models are a persuasive tool to predict and study air pollution on different temporal and spatial scales. However, due to the complexity of physics and chemistry of air pollutants’ interactions and lack of precise input data, these models have uncertainties. In particular, most of the emission data have a too coarse resolution and are not appropriate for application in urban scale air quality modelling. In this study, a downscaling approach is utilized for emission data in order to improve the air pollutants concentration simulation over Munich city using the POLYPHEMUS/DLR chemistry-transport model (CTM). Traffic emission from the Bavarian Emission Kataster (EKATBY) 2004 anthropogenic emissions dataset with 2 km resolution is downscaled to 100 m with regard to the highresolution OpenStreetMap roads paths and areal emission sources are relocated on the most populated and active sites which have been determined from VIIRS NOAA satellite-derived night light data. In addition, the EEA CORINE 2012 land use data is implemented with 100 m grid resolution to improve e.g. the biogenic emissions. Regarding aerosols, the SIze REsolved Aerosol Module (SIREAM) for aerosol dynamic and the Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (SORGAM) are applied. The CTM is driven by WRF 3.5 meteorological forecasts. In order to have reliable simulations, the one-way grid nesting method with four domains is employed, where the coarsest domain covers Europe and the finest covers Munich city area.
In Europe (EU25) about half a million skin cancer cases are occurring per year and this is strongly associated with personal habits in relation to sun exposure and its UV component. Within the frame of the European GMES-Program (GMES=Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) the ESA-GSE Project PROMOTE addresses this problem by developing and implementing a UV information service that aims to reach as many as possible citizens of Europe (EU25). The overall PROMOTE UV service contains forecast and monitoring products. The underlying methods, the use of satellite data, the various UV products including related user interfaces, as well as accuracy aspects are described. One central ambition of the PROMOTE project is the close interaction between providers and users. Experiences that have been made and will be made during the different stages of the PROMOTE project contribute significantly to the further up-grading of the services.
In this study we have analysed the sensitivity of the erythemally effective radiation to uncertainties in measured total ozone content of the atmosphere (TOC).These uncertainties result from a restricted spatial resolution, a restricted temporal resolution or the restricted accuracy of measured TOC. Daily operational total ozone measurements from different instruments made over several years were applied. Measurements were gained space born by EPTOMS, ERS-2/GOME and TOVS and from the ground by Dobson and Brewer Spectrophotometers for the locations of Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic, 50°N), Nairobi (Kenya, 1°S) and Springbok (Rep. of South Africa, 30°S). The measurement uncertainties were analyzed by an inter-comparison of modeled erythemally effective UV radiation when using different sources of TOC. The evaluation of the uncertainties due to temporal delays was done in using TOC values with different temporal shifts. The influence of spatial gaps in TOC measurements was estimated separately in longitude and latitude up to distances of 1000 km around the measuring sites. From this analysis, requirements on the spatial resolution, temporal resolution and measuring uncertainties of total ozone measurements to calculate the erythemally effective UV radiation with a pre-selected accuracy can be derived in dependence of location and season.