A photorefractive optical lock-in is discussed in relation to ultrasonic vibration modal analysis of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. In this preliminary report, the method is used to analyze specimens with similar response characteristics to ICF targets with emphasis on both the displacement and frequency resolution of the technique. The experimental method, based on photorefractive frequency domain processing, utilizes a synchronous detection approach to measure phase variations in light scattered from optically rough, continuously vibrating surfaces with very high, linear sensitivity. In this photorefractive four-wave mixing technique, a small, point image of the object surface is made to interfere with a uniform, frequency modulated reference beam inside a Bismith Silicon Oxide crystal. Optical interference and the photorefractive effect of electronic charge redistribution leads to the formation of a refractive index grating in the medium that responds to the modulated beams at a frequency equal to the difference between the signal and reference frequencies. By retro-reflecting the reference beam back into the crystal, a diffracted beam, counter-propagating with respect to the original transmitted beam, is generated. Using a beamsplitter, the counter-propagating beam can be picked-off and deflected toward a photodetector. The intensity of this diffracted beam is shown to be a function of the first-order ordinary Bissel function, and therefore linearly dependent on the vibration displacement induced phase modulation depth (delta) , for small (delta) ((delta) < 4 (pi) (xi) /(lambda) < < 1) where (xi) is the vibration displacement and (lambda) is the source wavelength; analytical description and experimental verification of this linear response are given. The technique is applied to determine the modal characteristics of a rigidly clamped disc from 10 kHz to 100 kHz, a frequency range similar to that used to characterize ICF targets. The results demonstrate the unique capabilities of the photorefractive optical lock-in to detect and to measure vibration signals with very narrow bandwidth and high displacement sensitivity. This level of displacement sensitivity is particularly important in detecting changes in vibrational mode shapes and frequencies that might be associated with asymmetries in ICF targets.
A new experimental method for vibration modal analysis based on all-optical photorefractive processing is presented. The method utilizes an optical lock-in approach to measure phase variations in light scattered from optically rough, continuously vibrating surfaces. In this four-wave mixing technique, all-optical processing refers to mixing the object beam containing the frequency modulation due to vibration with a single frequency modulated pump beam in the photorefractive medium that processes the modulated signals. This allows for simple detection of the conjugate wavefront image at a CCD. The conjugate intensity is shown to be a function of the first-order ordinary Bessel function and linearly dependent on the vibration displacement induced phase (delta) , for (delta) equals 4(pi) (xi) /(lambda) << 1 where (xi) is the vibration displacement and (lambda) is the source wavelength. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the unique capabilities of the optical lock-in vibration detection technique to measure vibration signals with very narrow bandwidth (< 1 Hz) and high displacement sensitivity (sub-Angstrom). This narrow bandwidth detection can be achieved over a wide frequency range from the photorefractive response limit to the reciprocal of the photoinduced carrier recombination time. The technique is applied to determine the modal characteristics of a rigidly clamped circular disc from 10 kHz to 100 kHz.
Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) utilizing a phase-modulation of the object beam and a continuous reference-updating technique is proposed to provide noise reduction in optical NDE methods. Unlike conventional ESPI techniques, this method uses phase modulation between successively subtracted additive speckle interference images. The ability of this technique to work in a turbulent environment is demonstrated, and application to detection of structural defects in adhesively bonded structures, a problem of interest to the NDE community, is shown.
Optical detection of disbonds in aluminum composites is demonstrated using electronic speckle pattern interferometry combined with synchronized pressure stressing. The surface on the test specimen is periodically pressure stressed in synchronization with the image acquisition rate of an image processor. This is achieved by using a two-port, low volume, transparent vacuum chamber mounted on the specimen. One of the ports of the vacuum chamber is connected to a constant vacuum source, and the other is connected to the ambient via a solenoid valve that is periodically opened and closed in synchronization with the image acquisition. Furthermore, illumination of the specimen is also synchronized with the stressing. Speckle images of the surface of the specimen undergoing high and low pressure stressing are combined with a reference speckle image and acquired at the image acquisition frequency of the detecting CCD camera. Every two consecutive images are then subtracted in the image processor and displayed in real-time. In this manner, excellent noise reduction is achieved, rejecting the effects of low frequency noise contributions such as slow object drift, air current, and thermal gradients in/around the specimen found in typical industrial environments.