NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) transported two lidar instruments to the NOAA facility at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) on the Big Island of Hawaii, to participate in an official, extended validation campaign. This site is situated 11,141 ft. above sea level on the side of the mountain. The observatory has been making atmospheric measurements regularly since the 1950’s, and has hosted the GSFC Stratospheric Ozone (STROZ) Lidar and the GSFC Aerosol and Temperature (AT) Lidar on several occasions, most recently between November, 2012 and November, 2015. The purpose of this extended deployment was to participate in Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) Validation campaigns with the JPL Stratospheric Ozone Lidar and the NOAA Temperature, Aerosol and Water Vapor instruments as part of the routine NDACC Validation Protocol.
The NASA Langley Research Center and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, have collaborated to design, build and fly a combination backscatter and Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instrument for the measurement of aerosols, temperature and ozone from the NASA DC-8. The AROTAL (Airborne Raman Ozone Temperature and Aerosol Lidar) instrument was flown on two separate Arctic missions to look at ozone loss processes during the late winter-early spring, and to validate measurements made by the SAGE III satellite instrument. Results from this instrument have demonstrated that the SAGE III instrument is in agreement with the lidar retrievals to better than ten per cent.
The rationale and justification for aerosol and cirrus cloud observations in the equatorial region of the central Pacific are presented. The development of a small, fully automatic lidar system, powered by wind and solar energy, is discussed.
The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's stratospheric ozone lidar has undergone several modifications and improvements since it participated in the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison (STOIC) campaign at Table Mountain, CA, in July 1989. Changes have been made in both the transmitter and receiver. The transmitter has been changed to include a XeF laser to generate the "off-line" wavelength; the detector has been changed to include mechanical choppers for each of the high-sensitivity channels, and the number of channels has been increased to six. In addition to the four elastic-scattering channels previously described, detectors at the N2 Raman-scattered wavelengths for each of the transmitted wavelengths have also been added. The vertical resolution of the acquisition has been improved from 300 to 150 m, with the capability to record data with 75-m resolution. The Raman channels permit the measurement of ozone in air parcels with heavy loadings of aerosols, and give additional information about the aerosols themselves.
Data from recent campaigns are presented to illustrate these points.
The Goddard mobile lidar was deployed at Cannon Air Force Base near Clovis, New Mexico during the Spring of 1990. Measurements of stratospheric ozone and temperature were made over a period of six weeks. Data from the lidar system is compared with data from a balloon-borne, ultraviolet instrument launched from nearby Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. Along with several improvements to this instrument which are now underway, a second lidar dedicated to temperature and aerosol measurements is now being developed.
As a part of the international Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change, Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a mobile differential absorption lidar capable of making precise and accurate measurements in the stratosphere between 20 and 45 km. We present in this paper a description of the instrument, a discussion of the data analysis,
and some results from an intercomparison held at JPL's Table Mountain Observatory in California during October and November 1988.