Graphene oxide (Go) is one of the important derivatives of graphene materials. It has excellent photoelectric properties due to oxygen functional groups introduced during the graphite peeling process. The electrical and optical properties of Go are closely sensitive to its chemical structure and can be adjusted chemically. Based on in-situ infrared dynamic test method, the structure and composition of graphene oxide are determined, and the real-time change of oxygen functional groups with temperature is characterized. The change trend of oxygen groups such as C-OH,O-H (water), O-H (in COOH),C=O with temperature was basically similar, but showed clearly different temperature dependent The loss of different oxygen groups is mainly concentrated in the following four temperature ranges: 22°C ~ 150°, 150 ° ~ 230°, 230° ~ 400°, and 400° ~ 530°, respectively.