Ground-based observations of the middle atmospheric density, pressure and temperature profiles can be obtained by lidar. A single-wavelength Rayleigh lidar system based at Hefei (31°N,117°E) has been used to measure the atmospheric density, pressure and temperature in the middle atmosphere in night in the altitude range from about 25 to 40 km. The structure of Rayleigh lidar system, principles of middle atmospheric density, pressure and temperature measurement which is based on the Rayleigh scattering theory and method to retrieve atmospheric density, pressure and temperature profiles were described respectively. This instrument combined a 500mW Nd:YAG laser transmitter with a 0.4 m receiver mirror to observe returns from altitudes between 25km and 40km.The lidar observed atmosphere density, pressure and temperature profiles are validated through comparison with the measure data provided by sounding balloon. According to the data from actual measurement, the inversion of the vertical distribution of middle atmosphere density, pressure and temperature are in good agreement with the result of sounding balloon. Generally, in the altitude range 25 to 40 km, the density ratio profile of Rayleigh lidar to the sounding balloon density fluctuates between 0.98 and 1.10, the pressure ratio profile of Rayleigh lidar to the sounding balloon is between 0.99 and 1.06 and the deviation of the temperature is less than 6 k.
Signal de-noising remains an important problem in lidar signal processing. This paper presents a de-noising method based on singular value decomposition. Experimental results on lidar simulated signal and real signal show that the proposed algorithm not only improves the signal-to-noise ratio effectively, but also preserves more detail information.
Micro pulse lidar(MPL) is an effective tool for atmospheric aerosol and cloud detecting. In order to make the structure of the micro pulse lidar more compact, solve the problem that it always very difficult to adjust the transmitting and receiving optical paths to parallel in the traditional system, avoid the influence of the geometric overlap factor and reduce the complexity of the data processing, Anhui institute of optics and fine mechanics of the Chinese academy of sciences designs a new type of micro pulse lidar, particularly designs the followed up optical unit of the micro pulse lidar. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a signal bundle changes the structure of the subsequent optical unit in the traditional system to make the transmitting and receiving optical paths coaxial. The public end of the Y type optical fiber bundle is composed of a transmitting optical fiber in the center and eight receiving optical fibers in the periphery. After a brief introduction of the new system, the key parameters of the new micro pulse lidar system and the Y type optical fiber bundle were described in some detail. In order to verify the feasibility of the new structure of the micro pulse lidar system, a continuous observation experiment was carried out in Hefei area to detect the horizontal distribution of the atmospheric aerosol and pollutions. The data measured in the experiment in the November 2013 was processed with Fernald method and the profile of the atmospheric aerosol horizontal extinction coefficient distribution was inverted. The data inversion results showed that: the data acquired by the new lidar system and the extinction coefficient distribution inverted by Fernald algorithm are all very reasonable, and the time-space distribution of atmospheric aerosols extinction coefficient can reflect the distribution of the atmospheric aerosol and pollutions near the ground effectively. All of the experiment results indicate that the design of the new micro pulse lidar system is effective.
The stable isotopes in atmospheric water vapor contain rich information on the hydrologic cycles and gaseous exchange processes between biosphere and atmosphere. About one-week field experiment was conducted to continuously measure the isotope composition of water vapor in ambient air using an open-path FTIR system. Mixing ratios of H<sub>2</sub> <sup>16</sup>O and HD<sup>16</sup>O were measured simultaneously. Analysis of water vapor isotopes revealed that the variations of H<sub>2 </sub><sup>16</sup>O and HD<sup>16</sup>O were highly related. Mixing ratios of both isotopes varied considerably on a daily timescale or between days, with no obvious diurnal cycle, whereas the deuterium isotopic [delta]D showed clear diel cycle. The results illustrated that the correlation between [delta]D and H<sub>2</sub>O mixing ratio was relatively weak, which was also demonstrated by the Keeling plot analysis with the whole data. Yet the further Keeling analysis on a daily timescale displayed more obvious linear relationship between [delta]D and the total H<sub>2</sub>O concentration. All daily isotopic values of evapotranspiration source were obtained, with the range between -113.93±10.25‰ and -245.63±17.61‰ over the observation period.
An accurate line-by-line trace gas absorption model is present in the paper. It is for mid-infrared band and can be used for the study and application of detecting trace gas (or pollution gas) in atmosphere. It is based on HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database. Spectral line shape, far wings, temperature correction and resolution are calculated. Infrared absorption characters of various gases in atmosphere can be simulated by the model. The algorithm details are described and the results calculated by the model are compared with that measured by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. As an instance, model is applied for detector design of NDIR technology and the relationship between signal intensity of detectors and concentration of CO<sub>2</sub>/CO is simulated by the model. Available concentration range of detector is given by calculating results of the model.
A method for the measurements of atmospheric transmittance by FTIR spectrometer is proposed. Calibrating special response of system based on two-point temperature with blackbody, transmittance spectra of CO<sub>2</sub> IR absorption band are analyzed and calculated depending on the measurement data. The CO<sub>2</sub> concentration in atmosphere is acquired after fitting the measured spectra with the line parameter in HITRAN employing NLLS algorithm. The results agree with the standard CO<sub>2</sub> concentration considered in the environmental monitoring. It indicates that the method is feasible for measuring atmospheric transmittance and analyzing gases in quantity.